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THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE PAST



We tend to imagine that ancient people were ‘environmentally friendly’


and lived in harmony with nature. Some people (such as the American Indians) did indeed respect and protect their environment. But there are many examples of ancient peoples who destroyed the land they inhabited. In doing this, some of them destroyed their own livelihood.

The great city of Ur was destroyed by floods after its people had cut down the trees on the banks of the river Euphrates to use as fuel for their fires. Although the Bible says that the cause of floods was anger of God, the real cause of the flood was probably environmental damage caused by man.

The dodo was a large bird, rather like a turkey, that lived on the island of Mauririus in the Indian Ocean. When the first man arrived in Mauritius in the early 16th century, they found that the dodos were very tame. The settlers killed the dodos partly for food and partly for sport. By 1680, less than 200 years after the first man settled on Mauritius, the last dodo was dead. Only the expression ‘as dead as a dodo’ lives on in the English language.

I. Найдите слова из первой колонки в тексте и соотнесите с их значением во второй колонке.

1. tend 2. ancient 3. protect 4. inhabited 5. tame a. lived in b. not afraid of people c. have an inclination, tendency d. defend e. very old

II. Дополните предложения в соответствии с содержаниемтекста и подчеркните правильный вариант ответа.

1. According to the passage, our ancestors a) respected and protected their environment b) were probably as selfish as modern people c) lived in harmony with nature.

2. The passage states that the great city of Ur was probably destroyed by a) fires b) the anger of God c) floods after cutting down trees.


3. According to the Bible, floods were a) punishment b) reward c) help of God.

4. In the 15th century there were a) only dodos b) no people c) many settlers in Mauritius.

5. People hunted dodos a) for pleasure b) for food c) for food and for pleasure.

II. Соответствуют ли следующие утверждения содержанию текста? Если да, запишите букву T (TRUE), если нет – буквой F (FALSE).

1. Modern people think the ancient people protected the environment.

2. American Indians destroyed their environment.

3. The great city of Ur was destroyed by great water.

4. Now we can find dodo only on the island of Mauritius.

5. ‘As dead as a dodo’ is an English idiom.

Text C

SHOPPING

All the housewives who went to the new supermarket had one great ambition: to be the lucky customer who did not have to pay for her purchases. For this was what the notice inside the entrance promised. It said: ‘Remember, once a week, one of our customers gets free goods. This may be your lucky day!’



For several weeks Mrs. Edwards hoped, like many of her friends, to be the lucky customer. Unlike her friends, she never gave up hope. The cupboards in her kitchen were full of things which she did not need. In vain her husband tried to dissuade her. She dreamed of the day when the manager of the supermarket would approach her and say: ‘Madam, this is your lucky day. Everything in your basket is free.’

On Friday morning, after she had finished her shopping and had taken it to her car, she found that she had forgotten to buy any tea. She dashed back


to the supermarket, got the tea and went towards the cash desk. As she did so, she saw the manager of the supermarket approach her. ‘Madam,’ he said, holding out his hand, ‘I want to congratulate you! You are our lucky customer and everything you have in your basket is free!’

I. Найдите слова из первой колонки в тексте и соотнесите с их значением во второй колонке.

1. ambition 2. purchases 3. gave up 4. in vain 5. dashed a. left b. with no result c. ran quickly d. buyings e. wish

II. Дополните предложения в соответствии с содержаниемтекста и подчеркните правильный вариант ответа.

1. The housewives learnt about the offer of free goods a) from the manager b) at the supermarket c) from their friends.

2. Mrs. Edwards’s husband tried to a) make her unhappy b) cheer her up c) stop her buying things.

3. Mrs. Edwards wanted to a) get a free basket of goods b) meet the manager c) fill all her cupboards very much.

4. Mrs. Edwards went shopping a) on foot b) in a friend’s car c) by car.

5. Mrs. Edwards must have been a) embarrassed b) delighted c) disappointed.

II. Соответствуют ли следующие утверждения содержанию текста? Если да, запишите букву T (TRUE), если нет – буквой F (FALSE).

1. All the housewives who went to the new supermarket wanted to get free goods.

2. Friends of Mrs. Edwards didn’t hope to be the lucky customer any more.


3. Mrs. Edwards bought a lot of useless things.

4. On Friday morning she returned to the supermarket to drink some tea.

5. The dream of Mrs. Edwards came true.

Text D





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