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Classification of hazards, dangerous and harmful factors

Basic concepts and definitions of life safety



Study subjects "Safety" start with names consisting of two words "safety" and "life activity".

First, consider the term "life activity".

"Life activity" consists of two words - "life" and "activity", so find out first meaning of each.

Life - is a form of existence of matter, which is distinguished from other capacity for reproduction, growth, development, actively regulating its composition and functions of different forms of motion, the ability of adaptation to the environment and the presence of metabolism and response to stimulation.

Life is the highest form of existence of matter in comparison with others - physical, chemical, power and so on. The activity is a property of all living things, that the term "life" is to some extent involves active work.

Activity is specifically human form of activity, a necessary condition for the existence of human society, the meaning of which is advisable to change and transformation environment in the interests of the human..

Man is not only adapts to the environment, but also transforming it to meet their own needs and interacts with it.

Life activity - the process of self-existence and balanced of individual, group of individuals, society and humanity in general, in the unity of their vital needs and opportunities.

We turn to the definition of "safety".

Safety - is balanced the state of human society, the state, natural, anthropogenic systems, etc..

Safety of life activity - a branch of knowledge, scientific and practical activities aimed at studying the general laws of danger, their properties, their impact on the consequences, the human body, the foundations of protection of health and life of man and his environment against the dangers as well as the development and implementation of appropriate means and measures to create and maintain healthy and safe living conditions and human activities both in everyday life and the conditions of production and in emergency situations.


Classification of hazards, dangerous and harmful factors

Danger - this negative property of matter, which is manifested in its ability to cause damage to some elements of the universe, a potential source of harm. If it is a danger to humans, it is phenomena, processes, objects, properties, are capable under certain conditions to cause harm to the health or life of a person or system that provides livelihoods of people.

Sources are hazards:

• natural processes and phenomena;

• elements of the technogenic environment;

• human actions which hide a threat of danger.


Depending on the specific needs there are different systems of classification – the source of origin, localization, consequences, losses sphere of manifestation, structure, nature of human exposure and more. The most successful hazard classification of human life by source of origin, we believe that there is such whereby all hazards are divided into four groups: natural, technological, socio-political and combined. The first three indicate that the hazard of their origin are three components of the environment that surrounds a person - natural, technogenic (material and cultural) and the social. The fourth group includes natural and technogenic, natural and social, social and technological hazards originating from a combination of different components of the environment.

  • Natural sources of danger - are natural objects, natural phenomena and natural disasters which threaten to life or health (earthquakes, landslides, mudflows, volcanoes, floods, avalanches, storms, hurricanes, heavy rains, hail, fog, ice, lightning, asteroids, solar and cosmic radiation, dangerous plants, fish, insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, infectious disease of animals and plants).
  • Technogenic sources of danger - it is above all the dangers associated with use of transport vehicles to the operation of lifting and handling equipment, the use of combustible, flammable and explosive substances and materials using processes that occur at high temperatures and high pressure, using electricity, chemicals, various types of radiation (ionizing, electromagnetic, acoustic).
  • The social sources of hazards are hazards caused by low spiritual and cultural level: vagrancy, prostitution, drunkenness, alcoholism, crime and so on. The sources of these hazards are poor financial status, poor living conditions, strikes, uprisings, revolutions, conflicts on ethnic, ethnical, racial or religious grounds.
  • Sources of political dangers are conflicts on ethnic and interstate levels, spiritual oppression, terrorism, political, ideological, interparty, interconfessional and armed conflict and war.


Yet most sources of risk are combined character. This is only a small fraction:

• natural and man-made hazards - smog, acid rain, dust storms, reducing soil fertility, the emergence of the desert, and other phenomena generated by human activity;

• natural and social hazards, quaint ethnic groups, drugs, epidemics of infectious diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and others;

• social and technological hazards - Professional morbidity, professional injuries, mental disorders and diseases caused by industrial activity, massive mental disorders and diseases caused by exposure to the subconscious mind and the media and special technical means, substance abuse.


The existence of a source of danger indicates the existence or possibility of formation of a particular dangerous situation in which will damage caused. Tangible (material) loss, damage, injury, death or other harm resulting concrete impressive factor.

When factors affecting understood factors such habitat, which under certain conditions harmful to the both people and the life support system of people, resulting in material damage. Their origin may be factors affecting:

- physical including energy (air or water shock wave, electromagnetic, acoustic, ionizing radiation, objects moving at high speed and with high temperature, etc.)

- chemical (chemical elements , substances and compounds that affect the body of people, fauna and flora, corrosive, lead to the destruction of habitat sites)

- biological (animals, plants, microorganisms)

- social (excited crowd)

- psychophysiological.

Depending on the specific effects of damaging factors on humans are in some cases (such as in health and safety) are divided into hazardous and dangerous.

Hazards are called factors such environment, leading to the deterioration of health, decreased performance, disease and even death as a consequence of the disease.

Dangerous factors referred to factors such environment, leading to injuries, burns, frostbite and other injuries of the organism or its organs and even sudden death.


The correlation between the source of danger, dangerous situation (danger) and hazard shown in Table. 1.1.

Table 1.1 Sources of danger, dangerous situation (danger) and factors affecting


Source danger (risk) factors affecting dangerous situation affecting factors
The electrical network Precipice power lines Touching short circuit bare contacts Voltage step; Electric current Electric current Fever; fire
flood Flooding settlement high water level Low High water level
car   Management of drunken Faulty Traffic Trouble   A car moving car moving, depending on the type of malfunction


Modern living environment, even domestic, not to mention the production, contains many sources of danger. This electric grid and electrical equipment, water supply, medicines, toxic and flammable substances, balconies, located on high, hunting or other weapons like. In order for there is a real dangerous situation, necessary cause or condition, a kind of "trigger" in which the potential danger turns into real. Logical process of dangers of implementation potential threat triad "source of danger - the reason (condition) - a dangerous situation.

Most dangerous situation for a person occurs under the following conditions:

- Danger exists,

- The person is in the area of danger;

- A person does not have sufficient means of protection, use them or not, these tools are ineffective.



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