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Дисциплины:






Loans of Greek origin



Singular Plural

-is [is] -es [i:z]

basis bases

analysis analyses

crisis crises

thesis theses

parenthesis parentheses

axis axes

hypothesis hypotheses

diagnosis diagnoses

synopsis (резюме) synopses

ellipsis (эллипсис, лингв.) ellipses

-on [an] -a [э]

criterion criteria

phenomenon phenomena

automaton automata

 

Loans of Latin origin

-us [эs] -i [ai]

-оrа [эrэ]

-era [эrэ]

stimulus stimuli

nucleus nuclei

radius radii

corpus (свод, кодекс) corpora

genus (сорт) genera

fungus (низший гриб) fungi

genius genii (духи), geniuses (гении)

alumnus (бывший ученик, студент) alumni

cactus cacti

focus foci

 

-a [э] - ae [i:]

formula formulae (but – formulas of politeness)

antenna antennae

vertebra (позвонок) vertebrae

-um [эm] -а[э]

datum (данные) data

stratum (пласт, слой) strata

erratum (опечатка) errata

bacterium bacteria

addendum (приложение, дополнение) addenda

stadium stadia (or stadiums)

-es, -ix [iks] -ices [isi:z]

index indices

appendix appendices

matrix (матрица) matrices

 

 

Plural of compound nouns

1. As a rule in compounds it is the second component that takes
the plural form:

housewives, tooth-brushes, boy-scouts, maid-servants, stepmothers, boyfriends

2. Compounds in -ful have the plural ending at the end of the word:

handfuls, spoonfuls, mouthfuls, (though spoonsful and mouthsful are also possible).

3. Compounds in which the first component is man or woman have
plurals in both first and last components:

men-servants, women-doctors, gentlemen-farmers

But: man-eaters, lady-killers, man-haters, lady-birds

4. Compounds ending in -man change it into -men in spelling. In
pronunciation, however, there is no difference between the singular and
plural forms, both having [э]:

policeman [эn] - policemen [эn].

Such nouns as German, Roman, Norman are not compounds, and therefore they have regular plurals:

Germans, Romans, Normans.

5. In compounds originating from a prepositional noun phrase where
preposition is a linking element only the first noun takes the plural

editors-in-chief, mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chief, men-of-war (военные корабли).

6. In compounds with a conjunction as a linking element the plural is
taken by the second noun:

gin-and-tonics.

7. In compound nouns formed by a noun plus a preposition, or an adverb
or an adjective only the first element takes the plural:

passers-by, lookers-on, courts-martial, attorneys-general (генеральный прокурор), by-standers (свидетели), hangers-on (прихлебатели)



8. When the compound is a substantivized phrase which does not
contain a noun, the last element takes the plural ending -s:

forget-me-nots, breakdowns, stand-bys, grown-ups, close-ups, pick-ups (случайные знакомства), drop-outs (дезертиры), go-betweens (посредники), good-for-nothings.

THE NOUNS FRUIT AND FISH

FRUIT

This noun is uncountable when it is used in the general meaning:

The fruit is not ripe yet.

There is fruit for dessert.

This noun is used as a class countable noun when it denotes different sorts of fruit:

There were different fruits on the table: apples, pears, plums.

A fruit – плод, сорт фруктов

A pear is a juicy fruit.

The fruits of labour.

FISH

 

This noun is uncountable when it denotes food:

I like fish for breakfast.

There is much fish on the plate.

This noun can also be used as a countable noun when it denotes live fish; in this case it has the identical form for the singular and the plural:

A fish – five fish, many fish

I’ve caught five big fish.

Fish don’t live without water.

The form fishes is used to denote different sorts of fish:

I have bought a book on fresh-water fishes.

 


INVARIABLE NOUNS

Invariable nouns cannot change their number, some of them are always singular in meaning, some denote plurality.

 





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