Profit (v), profit (n), profitable, profitably, profitability, profiteer
a)To__ by something is to earn money by it.
b)It took a long time before England started to trade .
c) The__ of wool was of great importance for England.
d)A__ is a person, who takes advantage unfairly of a situation in
which other people are suffering.
e) It took many years before England started to trade .
Task 6. Historical consequences. Match two statements from columns A and B into a compound sentence with the conjunction "so".
Task 7.Many kings and queens from the House of Tudor had traits that made them recognisable in the popular history. Match the traits of the monarchs to their names.
Task 8.These are the most important events of the Tudor period in England. Rank them hi importance and explain your choice.
1.The court system was strengthened, so people could get fair deals with their cases in courts.
2.The Anglican Church replaced Catholic Church, which diminished dependence upon Rome.
3. Geographical discoveries made the basis for future Colonial Empire.
4.England became a super naval power in the world.
5.Francis Drake sailed round the world.
6.English Renaissance discovered great poets and dramatists.
ENGLAND IN THE 17th CENTURY.
THE STUART DYNASTY
1.What is a revolution? What revolutions do you know?
2.Can the change of the established social system by force be a success? Why? Think of the examples from the world history.
3.What are the political parties in Britain?
4.What do you know about their history?
5.Were there any political parties in the 16th century?
6.Were there any other political divisions in Britain in the 16th century?
England at the Beginning of the 17th Century
The 17th century was a notable period in the English history — it was the century of one of the first bourgeois revolutions in Europe, beginning of British science and British Empire. At the beginning of this century England was no longer a wool producing country, it had developed wool-processing industry, shipbuilding, metallurgy and coalmining. The new branches of industry included production of cotton prints, silk, glass, soap etc. The trade companies monopolised foreign trade as they had trade privileges — the Queen monopolies, patents and charters.
Monopolies, patents and charters gave the company an exclusive right to manufacture or sell particular goods. It enriched the company and gave profit to the Crown, but hampered the development of free trade.
In the country land became a source of profit — free land trade started. New merchants and gentry allied, they were becoming more wealthy and powerful, and, finally they wanted to get more power in political decisions.
James the First
Elizabeth I died on March 24, 1603, in the forty-fifth year of her reign. Two days before she named the heir of the English throne — James VI of Scotland, the great-great-grandson of Henry VII and the son of Mary Stuart. So, James succeeded Elizabeth I and became James I of England without any opposition. The Stuart dynasty was established.
James was the first King of the British Isles. It was not the United Kingdom, because only England and Wales had common Parliament, while Scotland and Ireland preserved their own Parliaments and remained quite independent. Under James I the country got the name Great Britain and preserved it till nowadays.
James I was much different from Queen Elizabeth, he was not the person to rule Britain at the period of great changes in politics and economy. James came from the country where there was no Parliament in the English sense. He was brought up on the doctrine of divine hereditary right — James believed that King derived Kingship from God and could answer to God alone. By that time English people already regarded the King as an official who should govern together with Parliament. Constant struggle of King and Parliament on different issues led to diminution of the power of the Crown — by the end of his reign James I admitted that he couldn't carry on the government without the aid of Parliament.
The first years of James Stuart's reign did not differ much from Elizabethan times because new King retained Robert Cecil Queen's chief adviser. Cecil tried to preserve earlier traditions, but very often James opposed Cecil's efforts. There were a number of plots aimed at dethroning the King or killing him. The most famous was the plot of Roman Catholics in 1605 called the Gunpowder Plot. The group of Catholics led by Catesby and Guy Fawkes wanted to blow up the King and Parliament on the opening day of the session — November 5. The plot was discovered on the eve of the session and hundreds of people were seized.
James I also had no distinct position in religions matters — he wanted to stop struggle between Roman Catholics, English Protestants and Puritans but failed. James opposed democratic spirit of Puritanism as incompatible with King's absolute power. The union of English and Scottish Crowns made James the most powerful Protestant sovereign in Europe. His opposition to Puritanism enforced the Puritan immigration to European countries and North America, where the first Puritan colonies were started.
In foreign policy James tried to make an alliance with Spain hoping to mediate between Protestants and Roman Catholics. Though this course was opposed by the English people and Parliament, James tried to marry his son Charles to Spanish Princess, but this project also failed. Finally Charles married Henrietta Maria, the daughter of the French King.
After the Spanish marriage was broken, Parliament quickly approved the war with Spain as anti- Spanish feelings were strong. King James died a year after this. He had reigned twenty-two years and was fifty-nine years old.
Though his reign showed general decline of royal power, it was a time of great triumphs. The poets of English Renaissance continued their work, English science began to develop and the British Empire started to grow.
Cultural Focus: Protestantism and Puritanism
From the time of its establishment Anglicanism in many ways represented a compromise between Protestantism and Catholicism. Its main doctrine, which rejected the power of the Pope, was Protestant, but its form of organisation was Catholic.
When Anglicanism was established in England, there appeared many people, who rejected its form of organisation, regarding it an obstacle to true worship. They followed the teaching of John Calvin, who claimed absolute church freedom and "pure" religion. These Protestants were called Puritans.
Puritans regarded simplicity and individual prayer as more important than elaborate public ceremony. They also believed that self-control and hard work are important and that pleasure is wrong and unnecessary.
As Puritans began to oppose the established religion, many of them were later persecuted and had to go overseas into the New World. There the first Protestant colonies were established.
Charles the First
After James I's death hi 1625, his son became Charles I. Charles was known as a great supporter of the war with Spain and, like his father, he believed hi divine right of the King. His marriage to French Princess Henrietta Maria allied him to Catholic Church of Europe, which expected support and assistance.
To continue war policy and help Catholic Church Charles needed money from the Parliament. Advised by his Chief Minister in Buckingham he summoned three Parliaments, but the Commons refused to give the money. Instead in 1628, they made him approve the Petition of Rights which stated that the free men of England should not be called upon to lend the King money and should not be pressed for refusing to do so. Later Charles ignored his promise and ordered the dissolution of Parliament.
Parliament was now in opposition to the Crown; Charles got no money and had to withdraw from the war. English Crown was gradually losing authority at home and abroad.
Charles ruled without Parliament for eleven years, from 1629 to 1640. During this period he was advised by the Earl of Stafford and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. Laud persecuted Puritans in England and strengthened English Church hi Scotland. Finally the Scots rebelled and occupied northern part of England. Charles needed money to suppress the rebels so he summoned the Parliament in 1640 to vote the money. As soon as members of Parliament gathered they began to discuss the grievances instead of money, so the King dissolved the Parliament. As the Parliament lasted for a very little while, it was called Short Parliament.
Unable to fight with the Scots Charles summoned another Parliament on November 3, 1640. This Long Parliament (to the contrast with the previous one) was in session for 13 years; it was restored for a short tune hi 1659 and finally voted its own dissolution hi 1660.