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Glorious Revolution



After the death of Charles II in 1685, the crown was succeeded by his brother James. James, who wanted to restore the positions of Catholics in England, continued the policy of friendship with France.

To encourage the spread of Roman Catholicism, James issued two Declarations of Indulgence. These declarations supported Catholic Church and had to be spread in churches and universities. National movement against the declarations began when James II alienated the Church and universities. Many members of Parliament resented his deeds.

The birth of James IPs son made many people afraid that the next King would also support Catholics and threaten the Established Church. The Whigs, the Church and many Tories issued a joint Invitation to the Protestant ruler of Holland William of Orange and his wife Mary to restore English liberties and take the English Crown. Mary was the daughter of James II and William was his nephew. His claim for English throne was a reasonable one if connected with Mary's.

In November 1688, William of Orange with his army landed in Devonshire and marched towards London. English towns, one by one, declared for the Prince. James II vanished from England with his son and on the day of his departure the Lords came to see the Prince. They resolved that the throne was vacant because the conduct of James II was inconsistent with Protestant England. In January 1689, Prince and Princess of Orange were proclaimed King and Queen. Protestant religion was established.

In 1689, the King signed the Bill of Rights, which established the basic principles of the English Constitution:

- taxes to be levied by the Parliament only;

- the questions of prime importance to be decided by the Parliament, not by the King;

- the liberty of speech in Parliament.

By Parliamentary Act of 1689 Protestants were relieved from oppression, while Catholics were barred to occupy government posts or teach at Universities.

All these events got the name of "Glorious" (or bloodless) Revolution — the Stuart dynasty remained in power though this power was greatly limited by the Parliament.

Task 4.The Bill of Rights in 1689 became a major legal step towards constitutional monarchy in Britain. Speak about different forms of government that led to the development of the constitutional monarchy in Britain using the table.

 

Period Form of Government
Anglo-Saxon Witan
Norman Great Council
Tudor/Stuart Parliament House of Lords/House of Commons

William III

The reign of William III was marked by continuous struggle with France and Ireland. In 1690, an English and Dutch army led by William met an Irish and French army led by former English King James. The reason for fighting was the wish of the Irish Catholics to restore James. The battle ended with the victory of William that was of great importance for the English Revolution but of great sorrow for Ireland. Irish Parliament was reduced and Irish Catholics lost every human right, including the right to education.



William Ill's foreign policy aimed at preventing French aggression led to the Nine Years War between France and Grand Alliance (1690—1697) of England, Holland, Austria, Spain and Savoy. The end of the war was inconclusive, though some important changes occurred — the Bank of England was founded to finance the struggle by loans and the Cabinet Government system was started.

King William III died in 1702, eight years after the death of his wife, Queen Mary. In English history he is known as a fighter against French aggression, whose foreign policy promoted peace in Europe for a decade after his death.

William III was succeeded by Anne, the second daughter of James II. She was a weak-minded woman, entirely guided by her friend Lady Marlborough. She was a submissive and obedient monarch under whom the main features of Constitutional monarchy were shaped in England. As Anne died childless, she was succeeded by George of Hanover. So the Stuart dynasty was replaced by the Hanoverians.

Task 5.Monarchs from the House of Stuart had traits that made them recognisable in the popular history. Match the traits of the monarchs to their names.

 

The House of Stuart
1. James I a) let shape the main features of Constitutional monarchy
2. Charles I b) was invited to take the English Crown because of his Protestant views
3. Charles II c) came to power after the Puritan revolution failed
4. James II d) united the crowns of England and Scotland, introduced the name Great Britain
5. William III e) was opposed for his support of Roman Catholics and had to leave Britain
6. Anne f) was executed by English people as guilty of treason

Science and Culture in the 17lh Century

The 17th century was rich in political changes and cultural development. It was a century of John Locke, who contributed to economics, philosophy, and politics. The growth of natural science reflected hi the founding of the Royal Society (1660) that united scientists from different fields.

Royal Society united such scientists as Isaac Newton, who made great discoveries in Mathematics, Physics and Optics, William Petty, a well-known physician and many others. This scientific movement gave way to different changes in technology, which improved the life of English people and fastened industrial development.

English art and architecture were dominated by classicism, which became a symbol of wealth and influence.

After the Great Fire of London Christopher Wren became the author of rebuilt stone houses. Most well-known is St Paul's Cathedral, which is considered to be the finest Protestant Cathedral in the world.

English literature of the period is represented by John Milton, a brilliant poet and John Bunyan, the author of allegories of contemporary life.

The period of revolution was connected with severe Puritan restrictions, which affected cultural life — theatres were closed, different entertainments were banned. After the Restoration theatre reflected social events as it had never done before. Drama, opera and ballet experienced the influence of France and Italy.

Task 6. Finish the sentences.

1.The trade companies had special rights to sell particular goods so ...

2.James I was the first King of Great Britain because ...

3.The country got the name Great Britain when ...

4.Among the number of plots against James I the most famous is ...

5.James I's opposition to Puritanism was the reason for ...

6.The period of James I's reign was ...

7.Charles I was opposed by Parliament because he ...

8.Charles I reigned for 11 years without the Parliament and then summoned it because ...

9.The Long Parliament took special measures to prevent King's tyranny — ...

 

10.The open struggle between the King and Parliament started when ...

11.The whole Britain divided into two opposite sides — ...

12.The war between the Royalists and the Roundheads was lost by...

13.Charles I was brought to trial for ...

14.The Republic of Commonwealth was governed by ..., who ...

15.Commonwealth stopped its existence because ...

16.James II alienated the Church and universities because he ...

17.William of Orange was invited to govern Britain because ...

18.William's succession was called "Glorious Revolution" because ...

19. Anne let the main feature of Constitutional monarchy shape because ...

Task 7.Vocabulary development. State the meaning of the derivatives and complete the sentences.





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