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Congregate, congregation

a)__ gathered together in the church for worship and prayer.

b) A crowd around the entrance to the theatre hoping to catch

a glimpse of the stars of the show.

Throne, dethrone

a)______________________________ Elizabeth II ascended in 1952 — she came to the when her

father died.

b)The world champion was by a young challenger.

Divine, divinity, divination

a)__ is saying what will happen in the future, you may do it by

different magical methods.

b)Some fans seem to regard footballers as beings.

c)You can't be a Christian and dispute of Jesus.

d)She has a Doctorate in from York University.

Deprive, deprivation, deprived

a)There were food shortages and other during the civil war.

b)They live in_ area of London, where people don't have necessary conditions for living.

c) The dismissed Prime Minister was of all his rights.

Grief, grieve, grievance

a)He failed to get this position and his plans came to .

b)Newspapers should not intrude in people's private .

c)Workers' petition contained a list of .

d)It__ me to see how selfish they've become.

Dissolve, dissolution

a)Parliament can't be by King's wish.

b)They were depressed after their marriage was .

Plot, plotter

a)The army the overthrow of the government.

b)He__ a surprise for his wife's birthday.

c)All the people who made a secret were arrested.

Task 8.Historical consequences. Match two statements from columns A and B into a compound sentence with the conjunction "so".

1. James I united the Crowns of England and Scotland a) the Crown was greatly opposed by Parliament
2. Charles I believed in the divine right of a monarch b) after Cromwell's death social order was restored
3. The Protestant movement for purification of the Church continued c) he was dismissed and the crown passed to William of Orange
4. The revolutionaries didn't find a wide support among gentry and common people d) Great Britain appeared
5. James 11 wanted to improve the position of Catholics in Britain e) the constitutional or parliamentary monarchy was established
6. William of Orange signed the Bill of Rights f) the Parliament was divided into Anglicans and Puritans

Task 9.These are some important events of the Stuart period in England. Rank them in importance and explain your choice.

1.The British Empire was started.

2.English and Scottish Crowns were united.

3.King was executed and republic was established.

4.Habeas Corpus Act was passed to protect the interests of an individual.

5.By the Bill of Rights the basic principles of Constitutional monarchy were established.

Chapter 3



Task 1. Brainstorming.

1.Who is more important in British political life today — a monarch or a Prime Minister? Why?

2.What type of government was established in the Stuart period?

3.How did the Revolution affect the royal power?

Britain at the Beginning of the 18tb Century. Augustan Age

The 18th century became a century of wealth and fame for Britain, but also it was one of the most difficult centuries for British foreign policy because of numerous wars and battles. It was a century of colonial expansion and formation of the colonial empire, a century of great scientific discoveries, industrial innovations and industrial growth.

In foreign policy the 18th century became the time of another "Hundred Years War" against France — the chief commercial and political rival of England at that period.

There were seven great wars with short intervals of peace, in different parts of the world. These wars were carried by Britain with different allies, but against the same enemy — France. The wars lasted all through the 18th century, and only in the 19th century the long struggle finished with the battle of Waterloo in 1815. The victory in these wars was of primary importance for Britain, as it gave her new profitable markets overseas.

In 1702, the war with France began. It was later named "The War of the Spanish Succession" because French King Louis XIV wanted to put his heir on the Spanish throne (to succeed it). For Britain that meant French control of the Spanish colonies and complete loss of profitable trading sea routes. British Army was led by John Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough, so in Britain the struggle got the name "Marlborough's wars".

An alliance with Austria, Holland and Sweden helped England to defeat Louis XIV and get an important strategic point — Gibraltar. The Treaty of Utrecht, signed by French and British sides in 1712, marked the end of the war, the victory of the English and stipulated their free trade with Spanish colonies.

This period was rather successful for Britain not in foreign policy only. At home different trades were flourishing, good crops and industrial growth made the period of Marlborough's wars quite calm and prosperous. The age of Queen Anne was not only a time of great victories, but also a period of flourishing English culture and literature, a period of such famous men of letters as Joseph Addison, Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift and many others. This period is remembered as "Augustan Age" in England — the age of victories, prosperity and literature.

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