Text 4. Anti-globalism
Generally, the ideas of free trade, capitalism, and democracy have greatly facilitated globalisation. Supporters of democratic globalisation are sometimes called pro-globalists.They believe that the first phase of globalisation, which was market-oriented, should be followed by a phase of building global political institutions representing the will of world citizens.
The termanti-globalisationin its turnis used to describe the political stance of people and groups who oppose the neo-liberal version of globalisation.Anti-globalisation may involve the process or actions taken by a state in order to demonstrate its independence in decision-making. Anti-globalisation may occur to put brakes on the international transfer of people, goods and ideology.
Critics of the current wave of economic globalisation typically speak about the damage to the planet, and such things as increased poverty, inequality, injustice and the erosion of traditional culture. The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural goods. It is difficult for these countries to compete with stronger countries that subsidise their own farmers.
The next aspect is exploitationof foreign workers. The abundance of cheap labour is giving the countries in power the incentive not to rectify the inequality between nations. It is true that the workers are free to leave their jobs, but in many poorer countries this would mean starvation for the worker.
The economic gap between skilled and unskilled workers is also growing very fast.Families that were once part of the middle class are forced into lower positions by massive lay-offs. It also means that people in the lower class have a much harder time climbing out of poverty because of the absence of the middle class as a stepping stone.Weak labour unions hold less power over corporations that are able to easily replace workers, often for lower wages.
The anti-globalism movement is very broad, including church groups, national liberation factions, workers, intellectuals, artists, protectionists, and others. One of the key points made by critics of recent economic globalisation is that income inequality, both between and within nations, is increasing as a result of these processes. Americanization is often regarded as a wicked part of globalisation aimed to significant growth of America's shops, markets and other objects being brought into other countries.
Answer the Questions:
1.How are supporters of democratic globalisation called?
2. What is the second phase of globalisation?
3. What does the term anti-globalisation mean?
4. What motives for anti-globalisation acts can you name?
5. What do critics of the current wave of economic globalisation usually say?
6. Why is it difficult for poorer countries to compete with stronger partners?
7. Why is exploitationof workers especially strong in the developing countries?
8. How can globalisation expand the gap between skilled and unskilled workers?
9. What groups and parties support anti-globalisation movement?
10. What do anti-globalists mean by "Americanization"?