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Text 3. Orders and Reclamations 1 страница

A business transaction often starts with a letter of inquiry followed by an order. Both inquiry and order stimulate business activity on the part of recipient. They are typically asking letters. Orders express the writer’s intention to do business with his correspondent usually by buying some goods from him. It should be mentioned that the supplier must send order acknowledgement as an answer.

The advice of dispatch follows the order acknowledgement. The first thing before writing such a letter is to examine carefully whether the partners’ account is valid. That is why, just in the first paragraph we often come across the phrase - “Your credit was confirmed by our bank yesterday”.

Reclamations or complaint letters request some sort of compensation for defective or damaged merchandise or for inadequate or delayed services. The essential rule in writing a complaint letter is to maintain your poise and diplomacy no matter how justified your gripe is. Say exactly what compensation you desire. Provide a fully detailed narrative or description of the problem. Do not insist that the recipient have deliberately committed the error or that the company has no concern for the customers.

Letters that are written in response to claims may be called adjustments. They are among the most difficult to write as they require patience tact and diplomacy. The letters must be handled carefully when the requested compensation cannot be granted. The supplier must show his or her understanding of the situation and express his or her willingness to adjust it. Try to offer some practical or substitute compensation or give some friendly advice. Conclude the letter cordially expressing the confidence that you and the writer will continue doing business.

Answer the questions:

1. What is the main goal of orders?

2. What type of business letters are orders?

3. What is the advice of dispatch?

4. What should you always remember writing the advice of dispatch?

5. What do reclamations request?

6. What is the main rule in writing a complain letter?

7. What facts should be mentioned in reclamations?

8. What should not be mentioned in reclamations?

9. How do we call letters written in response to claims?

10. Is it easy or difficult to write adjustments?


Text 4. Case Study

A case study is one of several ways of doing social science research. It may include experiments, surveys, multiple histories and analysis of archival information. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve a single instance or event- a case.

It provides a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analysing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and what might become important in further research.

As a distinct approach to research, the use of case studies originated only in the early 20th century. Case studies have also been used as a teaching method and as part of professional development, especially in business and legal education. When the Harvard Business School was started, the faculty quickly realised that there were no textbooks suitable to a graduate program in business. Their first solution to this problem was to interview leading practitioners of business and to write detailed accounts of what these managers were doing.

Of course the professors could not present these cases as practices for studies because there were no criteria available for determining what would succeed and what would not succeed. So the professors instructed their students to read the cases and to come to class prepared to discuss the them and to offer recommendations for appropriate courses of action. Later this method of case studies was taken from business schools to be applied to public administration.

Case studies for public administration teach students of what they ought to do and what they should not in managing public agencies. There exist detailed cases of administrative functions for the industrialised world and highly effective cases of comparative administration.

Answer the questions:

1. What is a case study?

2. What does a case study consist of?

3. What principles do case study methods use?

4. What results may researchers gain studying a case?

5. When were the first cases applied?

6. What did the Harvard Business School mange to realize soon after its opening?

7. What was the first solution of Harvard teachers?

8. Why could not professors present the first cases for studies?

9. How did professors instruct their students?

10. What cases for public administration can you name?



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