A. Which type of memory is described in each case below?
Match the passages (1-4) with the types of memory they illustrate (a-d).
1. You remember what you ate for dinner last night; the date you were born; and what you are supposed to be doing tomorrow at 4p.m.
2. When you see the words George Washington, you call up all sorts of additional information from LTM: 1776, the first president, Father of the United States.
3. Have you ever misplaced something like a pair of glasses and then retraced your steps in an effort to find it? ”Let’s see, I came in the door, put down my keys, then I went to the kitchen, where I put down the packages...” And then you go to the kitchen and find your glasses, although you may not actually have left them there.
4. This memory lets you “go back in time” to a childhood birthday party, to the day you got your driver’s license, to the story of how your parents met.
a) implicit; b) episodic; c) semantic; d) episodic
B. Match the following words with their explanations.
1 to retrieve a. loss of memory
2 to repress b. obstructing wholly or partially
3 storage c. to make more efficient by simplifying
4 schema d. collecting and keeping for future use
5 interference e. to keep down, to suppress
6 amnesia f. to find again
7 to streamline g. a set of beliefs and expectations based on past experience
8 to comprehend h. to bring back into the mind
9 to recall i. to understand
C. Use one of the words from task 2 (1-9) to fill in the gaps in the text below.
STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL IN LTM
Most, if not all, of the information in LTM remains there more or less permanently, but we can’t always ___________ it when we need to, as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon,or TOT shows. Everyone has had the experience of knowing a word but not quite being able to ___________ it. We say that such a word is “right on the tip of my tongue.”
Researchers explain the loss of information from LTM by _____________from competing information. Interference may come from two directions: In retroactive interference, new information interferes with old information already in LTM; proactive interference refers to the process by which old information already in LTM interferes with new information. Interference affects both ____________ and retrieval of information.
Especially disturbing events may cause us to _____________ memories or even to forget personal memories altogether (hysterical ___________). Sometimes we “reconstruct” our memories for social or personal self-defense.
Recognizing that past reactions and experiences affect our present memory, researchers developed the ___________ theory. A schema (plural: schemata) is a set of beliefs or expectations about something based on past experience, and it serves as a basis or standard for comparison with a new experience. Using schemata, we not only _______________ and interpret present circumstances but also _______________ our retrieval processes. Retrieval is also aided by extensive cues and links with other material in LTM.
· It is important to know which words collocate (which words commonly go together) and a good dictionary will tell you this. When you see good examples of collocation, underline or highlight them in the text.
· Look at these examples of collocations from the reading text Memory.
raise questions (verb and noun collocation)
meaningless combinations(adjective and noun collocation)
store data (verb and noun collocation)
· Look through the text again to find some more collocations to remember.
GRAMMAR FOCUS 1