Comparing things in different ways
Which of the following sentences are correct? Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. Try to keep that visual image as longer as you can.
2. Some people are many better at remembering things than others.
3. You will notice that your visual register took in far more information than you were able to retain for even a few seconds.
4. Could any of us learn to remember as much like people with extraordinary memories do?
5. He found that longer he waited after first learning a list, the longer it took to learn the list again.
6. We can process more information by grouping it into larger units.
7. He lifted her head, then turned her face to a slightly much comfortable position.
8. The more dissimilar something is from other things you have already learned, the less likely it will be to interfere with other material in memory.
9. One of the most successful and most widely used methods of studying written material was first developed at Ohio State University.
10. LTM is more or little permanent and stores everything we know.
GRAMMAR FOCUS 2
Ask What, Why, Who, How questions to the following passages.
e.g.Long-term memory is more or less permanent and stores everything we “know”. Semantic memory is the portion of LTM that stores general facts and information in dictionary or encyclopedia form. Another facet of LTM, episodic memory, stores information rich with personal meaning.
What do we call the portion of LTM that stores general information?
How is general information stored by semantic memory?
· Information that we deal with enters short-term memory, also called working memory. STM contains everything that we are consciously aware of at any moment. STM not only briefly stores information but also processes that information further.
· STM has its limits. Researchers have found that STM can hold only as much information as can be repeated or rehearsed in 1.5 to 2 seconds, which is usually 5 to 10 separate bits of information. We can process more information by grouping it into larger meaningful units, a process called chunking.
· Scientific research on memory began with Ebbinghaus’s experiments in the nineteenth century. Today the information-processing model of memory describes how information is encoded, organized, and stored in memory, and how it is retrieved from memory.
· Some people with extraordinary memory possess or use eidetic imagery, the ability to reproduce unusually sharp and detailed images of a scene. Mnemonists are individuals who use memory techniques to develop extraordinary memory skills.
· One key to improving memory lies in organizing and coding information more effectively when we first place it in LTM. Techniques called mnemonics provide ready-made ways to impose order on new information, such as rhymes and jingles used for remembering facts.
READING AND LISTENING
Read and listen to an extract from the book “A Prayer for Owen Meany” by John Irving. In small groups discuss which type of memory is described in it? What can we compare it with? Give a definition of this type of memory.
The crack of the bat was so unusually sharp and loud for a Little League game that the noise captured even my mother’s attention. She turned her head –I guess, to see who had hit such a shot – and the ball struck her left temple, spinning her so quickly that one of her high heels broke and she fell forward, her face hitting the ground first because her hands never moved from her sides, which later gave rise to speculation that she was dead before she touched the earth.
Whether she died that quickly, I don’t know; but she was dead by the time Mr. Chickering reached her. He was the first one to her. He lifted her head, then turned her face to a slightly more comfortable position; someone said later that he closed her eyes before he let her head rest back on the ground. I remember that he pulled the skirt of her dress down. Then he stood up, removing his jacket, which he held in front of him. I was the first of the players to cross the line, but – for a fat man – Mr. Chickering was agile (2). He caught me, and he threw the jacket over my head. I could see nothing.
“No, Johnny! No, Johnny!” Mr. Chickering said. “You don’t want to see her, Johnny,” he said.
Your memory is a monster; you forget – it doesn’t. It simply files things away. It keeps things for you, or hides things from you – and summons (3) them to your recall with a will of its own. You think you have a memory; but it has you!
Later, I would remember everything. In revisiting the scene of my mother’s death, I can remember everyone who was in there that day; I remember who wasn’t there, too – and what everyone said, and didn’t say, to me.
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