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When we speak about the (1) … system of any country we take into consideration three (2) … of power – legislative, executive and judicial irrespective of the head of the state.

The legislative branch is usually (3) … by the Parliament and its main function is to make laws. In most countries the parliament includes two (4) … or houses. The members of the parliament are (5) …for different terms according to the regulations of the sovereign country.

The (6) …branch is, actually, the government or the Cabinet of Ministers. The Prime Minister is often at the head of the executive. The main function of this branch of power is to implement (7) … which are adopted by the Parliament.

The (8)… is empowered to observe and control if the laws are executedaccording to the Constitution of the country.

The system of adopting the law works as follows. The bill (draft) is introduced by the department of the government or some committee to the lower chamber of the Parliament. If it is (9) … the bill goes to the upper chamber. The bill becomes the law only after it is approved and signed by the head if the state. The way how the law is (10)… is supervised by the Court.


represented, implemented, branches, approved, political, judiciary, laws, chambers, executive, elected


Task 6. Complete the text with the proper word making a derivative from the word on the right.


CHECKS AND BALANCES One of the unique characteristics of the American systems of … is the system of “checks and balances”. The men who wrote the …were afraid that one person or branch of government might get too …. After all, they had just finished fighting a bloody war against the powerful King of England because the king had taken away many of their rights. So they made sure that each branch of government could control the other branches. For example, the … can ‘check’ Congress by … or rejecting laws it passes. On the other hand, Congress can … the President if enough members feel that he is not doing a good job. And the Supreme Court can decide a law is ….   govern constitute power     preside veto move constitute


Before you start working on the texts, try to do “General Knowledge Quiz” to see if you know a lot about the state structures of the Republic of Belarus, the United Kingdom and the USA.


(State Structure of Great Britain, the USAandthe Republic of Belarus)


1. The Constitution of ... a) the United States; b) Great Britain; c) the Republic of Belarus ... grants all the legislative powers of the federal government to the Congress.

2. The only non-elected second chamber in the parliament in the world is ... a) the Council of the Republic of Belarus; b) the Senate; c) the House of Lords

3. a) The House of Representatives; b) the House of Lords; c) the Senate ... has 100 members.

4. One-third of ... a) the House of Lords; b) the Senate; c) the Council of the Republic of Belarus ... is elected every two years.

5. The Vice President is the presiding officer in the ... a) House of Representatives of the Congress; b) Senate; c) House of Commons.

6. The House of Commons is presided over by ... a) the Lord Chancellor; b) the Speaker; c) the Prime Minister

7. The executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers in ... a) the Republic of Belarus; b) the USA; c) Great Britain

8. The Council of the Republic of Belarus consists of ... a) 110 deputies; b} 64 deputies; c) 435 deputies

9. The judicial branch in the USA is headed by ... a) the Constitutional Court; b) the Supreme Court; c) the federal court of appeal.

10. The judicial system is the most complicated in ... a) the Republic of Belarus; b) the USA; с) Great Britain.

11. "Front-benchers" are the leading members of ... a) the party in power; b) both parties; c) all existing parties ... in the House of Commons.

12. The President is elected for a term of four years and can be re-elected for another term but not longer in … a) the Republic of Belarus; b) the United States; c) Great Britain.

13. The absolute power of the British monarchy has been progressively reduced ... a) in the process of political evolution, b) in the Magna Carta; c) by the Constitution adopted by the Parliament.

14. The US Constitution was adopted in ... a) 1620; b) 1787; c) 1861

  1. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in ... a) Belarus, b) Great Britain; c) the USA.

16. There's no universal legal system in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

17. The President is the chief executive in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

18. The term of office of the Parliament members of different chambers is the same in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

19. The Supreme Court determines whether the laws and official enactments correspond to the Constitution in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

20. The upper chamber of Parliament isn't elected in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

21. "Convention" means a set of rules and practices which are regarded as vital for the operation of the government in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

22. "Convention" means the congress of the party's representatives to nominate the candidate for the highest post of the state in ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

23. The ... a) Labor; b) Liberal; c) Conservative party of Great Britain traces its origin back to the Whigs.

24. The Democratic Party was founded by ... a) George Washington; b) Thomas Jefferson; c) Abraham Lincoln.

25. Most of Belarusian electorate ... a) don't support any party; b) back the Communist party of Belarus; c) favor the Belarusian Popular Front.

26. "Union Jack" is the name of the national flag of ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA

27. Each part of ... a) Belarus; b) Great Britain; c) the USA ... has its own patron saint and national emblem.

28. The flower of ... a) shamrock; b) leek; c) flax ... is used in the ornament of the Belarusian national emblem.

29. The "Stars and Stripes" was adopted as a national flag of the USA in ... a)1782: b) 1777 c) 1864


Task 1. Read three texts about the political systems of Belarus, the UK and the USA. Make three charts as you see below and fill in the missing information outlining three structures. Be ready to describe the political systems of each country.



Head of the state


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