:






HOW TO USE DICTIONARY TO LEARN VOCABULARY



 

A good bi-lingual dictionary is very important for efficient language learning. A dictionary doesnt only tell you the meaning of a word, it also tells you the grammar, pronunciation and stress. It sometimes gives you an example sentence too.

 

Organize your vocabulary learning.

 

1. Find the meaning of new words.

2. Check grammar, spelling and pronunciation.

3. Extend your vocabulary.

 

How can I remember new words?

 

The way you record and learn a word helps you remember it. For example you can:

1. Imagine the word.

2. Write a personal example.

3. Make a word map.

4. Associate it with a similar word in your language.

But you cant learn new words just by writing them down once. You have to revise them down regularly. If you test yourself often on new vocabulary you can remember up to 80% of words.

To remember words or phrases, follow this routine.

 

1. Record the new word with the correct stress.

2. Try to remember it after a minute.

3. Test your memory again after an hour.

4. Remember it again the next day.

5. Test yourself after a week, then after a month.

 

How many words do I need to know?

 

Although Shakespeare used 33,000 words, English speakers today use only about 5,000 words in conversation. By the end of this course you will know at least 2,000 English words.

 

Learn words that are important for you.

 

It is impossible to remember every new word you see. Choose words that you think are useful and important. Write them down and revise them regularly.

 

Why do I remember some words and forget others?

 

Some words are easy to remember, because, for example, the word is similar to a word in you language, or its a word that you often use. Other words are more difficult to remember, because the spelling or pronunciation is unusual, or because you dont often see or hear the word.

When you revise a group of words, focus especially on the ones that you find difficult to remember. Try to think why.

 

If you forget the same word again and again, try to think of a special way to remember it.

 

1. Think of image in your mind.

2. Try to associate it with another word in English or your own language.

3. Write down the word and say it a few times.

4. Write it on a card and keep it in your pocket to test yourself from time to time.

Words often have more than one meaning.

How do I know which one I want?

e.g. Where do you work? In a bank.

The lift doesnt work. Its broken.

In these sentences, the verb work has two different meanings. Many other English words have different meanings, and they can also be grammatically different. For example, the same word can be a verb or a noun,



e.g. Book (read a book) noun/to book (to book a ticket) verb.

Look carefully at the context to decide which meaning is correct.

 

When you look up a word in a dictionary, you sometimes find more the one meaning.

 

1. Decide if the word in your sentence is a noun, adjective, verb, adverb, etc.

2. If there is still more than one meaning, look at the context again and choose the best variant.

 

How can I continue learning vocabulary after the course?

 

You can learn more words all the time, from books, magazines, songs, etc.

Remember to check the grammar and pronunciation of new words in your dictionary, as well as meaning, and record them in you vocabulary book. And dont forget to revise all the words you have learnt in the course.

 

 

FOCUS ON SPEAKING

 

Good pronunciation helps you to communicate better. You can easily improve your pronunciation.

Tip 1. Concentrate on English sounds which you don't have in-your language. Try to recognize phonetic symbols. Then you can check the pronunciation
ofwords in a dictionary.

Tip 2. Many letters have more than one pronunciation. Try to see the spelling

and pronunciation rules. Many combinations of letters always make the same sounds.

Tip 3. When you pronounce a word try to exaggerate the stressed syllable. Always underline the stressed syllable on a new word.

Tip 4. Pronounce strongly the stressed words or syllables. Say the other words. Quickly without stress. Try to get the right rhythm in each sentence you say.

Tip 5. If you use the wrong intonation, the can think you are bored or unfriendly. Try to sound interested friendly.

Tip 6. Practise your pronunciation outside class.

Use a dictionary to help you to pronounce new words.

Use 'Listen and Speak cassette.

Read aloud and record yourself on a cassette.

Listen to spoken English as much as possible, e g. Songs, films.

Understanding spoken language is more difficult than reading because you don't have time to translate every word. In conversation people use a lot of contractions and weak form (words which aren't stressed) so it is impossible to hear every word clearly. When you listen to a cassette you can't see the speaker's face. This makes it more difficult.

Listening to cassettes or watching videos is a very good way to practise understanding different voices, accents, situations.

Which of these problems do you have?

 

1. I havent got enough vocabulary to say what I want to.

2. I always worry that I do many mistakes.

3. I speak to slowly, because I have to translate everything I want to say before I can say it.

4. I feel embarrassed when I speak English and I cant express my personality.

5. I feel strange speaking English in class to people who speak my language.

 

If you have any of these problems, try to follow these tips.

 

Tip 1. If you dont know a word or a phrase, dont just stop. Try to find another way to express it with words you know.

 

Tip 2. You can always say more than you think. Dont worry about mistakes. The important thing is to communicate what you want to say.

 

Tip 3. Think what you want to say before you speak. It gives you confidence.

 

Tip 4. Practice to speak English as much as you can. The more you practice, the more confident youll feel.

 

In class you can:

 

q Take every opportunity to speak English. Never use your language if you can say it in English.

q Talk as much as you can when you work in pairs/groups.

 

Outside class you can:

 

q Learn and practice the words you need to talk about your job, family, etc.

q Use Listen and Speak cassette.

q Practice before and after class with another students.

 

FOCUS ON READING

What kind of books do you enjoy reading in you language?

Biographies, thrillers, detective stories, historical books, non-fiction, science fiction, romantic books, short stories, autobiographies.

What do you read in English? Have you ever read Easy readers?

What is an Easy Readers?

Easy Readers are books with simple grammar and vocabulary to help students practice reading in English. There are different levels of difficulty e.g. beginner, elementary, intermediate, etc.

How do I choose a book, which is the right level for me?

Generally, its best to choose one, which you can read quickly and enjoy. If you are not sure of the level, read the first page, if there are more than eight words that you dont know the book is probably too difficult for you to enjoy reading.

What do I do when there are words in the story that I dont know?

First decide if the word a noun, verb, adjective, etc. then try to guess the meaning from the other words around (=context).

If you cant guess the meaning, you can either:

a) Continue reading if can still follow the story

b) Check if the words is in the Glossary at the back of the book

c) Use you dictionary.

If you can understand most of the words but cant follow the story, try to concentrate on the story, stop regularly and ask yourself questions about the story:

7.3. Who is speaking?

7.4. What are they doing?

7.5. Whats happened?

7.6. Whats going to happen next?

Many Easy Readers include questions to answer after every chapter, to help you check your understanding of the story. Such kinds of books are great way to revise grammar and learn new words.

 

FOCUS ON WRITING

I. A letter to a pen friend:

 

1.Put your address in the top right-hand corner (but not your name).

2. Write the date below.

3. Letter always begins with Dear

4. Answer the questions: who are you? Where were you born?

Where do you live? What does your family do? How old are you?

What do you do every day? Why are you learning English?

What do you like doing in your free time? What did you do last summer?

5.Finish the letter with Best wishes or Regards.

6. Sign your name.

Note: if you have forgotten smth. add with PS at the end. You may use commas, contractions.

 

 

II. A formal letter/e-mail:

1. Put your address in the top-hand corner (not your name)

2. Put the name and address of the person you are writing on the left, above the greeting

3. Write the date under your address

4. Make sure you begin with Dear and use a formal ending Yours faithfully or Yours sincerely

5.Always write I look forward for hearing from you before the ending

6. Sign your name

7. Write your name in capital letters under the signature

8. Use formal language (Could you? I would be grateful if you could)

 

Note: Dont use contractions in formal letters.

 

III. Writing an interview:

 

1. Write an introductory paragraph by briefly describing where you the interview take place and describe the person.

2. Write the questions first. Four or five will probably be enough. Try to make them lead on from each other. Make the last question smth. about future.

 

IV. Writing a biography:

 

1. Write at least three paragraphs, one for the birth and early years, one or two for the Middle Ages, and one for the last years.

2. Link events with time expressions (immediately, after, then, later, etc.).

3. Use narrative tenses. If a person you are writing about is still alive, you may use

Since + Pr.Perfect in the last paragraph.

4. Be careful with prepositions of time.

 

V. Writing a story:

1. Always invent plot before you start writing.

2. Divide your story into three parts opening paragraph, body of the story, closing paragraph.

3. Use a mixture of narrative tenses.

4. Link events with time expressions (immediately, after, then, later, etc.).

5. Use adverbs (desperately, fortunately, etc.) to make your story vivid.

 

VI. Written exercises:

 

These are taken to mean exercises to practice grammatical structures, taking the form of writing sentences from the prompts following a particular pattern, answering questions using a particular pattern, sentence completion, matching halves of sentences and writing out the complete sentence, and gap-filling using the correct tense or word.

 

VII. Dictations:

 

The discussion on dictation raised a number of interesting points. However, dictation is a form of writing and the teacher in the group should read in short phrases repeated twice, corrected and so on. The student should recognize the word, the phrase, and the sentence.

 

VIII. Some writing options:

 

1. Think about the suggested activity or approach and how to use or adapt it in you work.

2. Think of the purpose of writing activities.

3. Compose the list of key words in chronological order.

4. Provide only a skeleton structure of the story. Provide the plan of the story.

5. Remember the basic information of the subject.

6. Try it on.


GLOSSARY

 

Greetings

Good morning to greet each other in the mornings

Good afternoon - to greet each other in the afternoons

Good evening - to greet each other in the evenings

Good night - to wish a sweet dream before going to bed

Good bye saying good bye

Monday the first day of the week

Tuesday the second day of the week

Wednesday the third day of the week

Thursday the fourth day of the week

Friday the fifth day of the week

Saturday the sixth day of the week

Sunday the seventh day of the week

Meeting people

Parents = a father or mother

Father = a male parent

Mother = a female parent

Sister= a female person having the same parents as another person

Brother = a male person having the same parents as another person

Son = a boy or man in relation to his parents

Daughter = a girl or woman in relation to his parents

Grandfather= the father of one's father or mother

Grandmother = the mother of one's father or mother

Grandson = a son of one's son or daughter

Granddaughter = a daughter of one's son or daughter

Grandchildren = the son or daughter of one's child

Grandparents = the father or mother of either of one's parents

Great-grandfather = the grandfather of one's father or mother

great- grandmother = the grandmother of one's father or mother

great-grandchildren = the grandson or granddaughter of one's child

great-grandparents = the grandfather or grandmother of either of one's parents

Uncle = a brother of one's father or mother

Aunt = a sister of one's father or mother

Cousin = the child of one's aunt or uncle

Nephew = a son of one's sister or brother

Niece= a daughter of one's sister or brother

Husband = a woman's partner in marriage

Wife = a man's partner in marriage

father-in-law = the father of one's wife or husband

mother-in-law = the mother of one's wife or husband

son-in-law = the husband of one's daughter

daughter-in-law = the wife of one's daughter

Stepfather = a man who has married one's mother after the death or divorce of one's father

Stepmother = a woman who has married one's father after the death or divorce of one's mother

Stepchildren = a stepson or stepdaughter

stepbrother (son, daughter, sister) = a son of one's stepmother or stepfather by a union with someone other than one's father or mother respectively

Occupations

Worker = a person or thing that works

Mechanic = a person skilled in maintaining or operating machinery, motors, etc

Turner = a person or thing that turns, esp a person who operates a lathe

Locksmith= a person who makes or repairs locks

Farmer = a person who operates or manages a farm

Engineer = a person trained in any branch of the profession of engineering

Teacher = a person whose occupation is teaching others, esp children

Doctor= a person licensed to practise medicine

Surgeon = a medical practioner who specializes in surgery

dentist = a person qualified to practise dentistry

soldier = a person who serves or has served in an army

sailor = a person who sails

pilot = a person who is qualified to operate an aircraft or spacecraft in flight

officer= a person in the armed services who holds a position of responsibility, authority, and duty, esp one who holds a commission

salesman = a person who sells merchandise or services either in a shop or by canvassing in a designated area

saleswoman(shop-assistant, shop-girl) = a person who sells merchandise or services either in a shop or by canvassing in a designated area

research worker = a person who investigates, such as a private detective

architect = a person qualified to design buildings and to superintend their erection

lawyer = a member of the legal profession, esp a solicitor

journalist= a person whose occupation is journalism

typist= a person who types

driver = a person who drives a vehicle

actor = a male who acts in a play, film, broadcast, etc

actress = a female who acts in a play, film, broadcast, etc

composer = a person who composes music

painter = an artist who paints pictures

writer = a person who writes books, articles, etc

poet = a person who writes poetry

playwright = a person who writes plays

musician= a person who plays or composes music, esp as a profession

conductor = an official on a bus who collects fares, checks tickets, etc

chemist = a person studying, trained in, or engaged in chemistry

physicist = a person versed in or studying physics

accountant = a person concerned with the maintenance and audit of business accounts and the preparation of consultant reports in tax and finance

book-keeper = a person concerned with the maintenance and audit of business accounts and the preparation of consultant reports in tax and finance

 

House

Comfortable - describes furniture and clothes that provide a pleasant feeling and that do not give you any physical problems

Cottage a small house, usually in the countryside

Flat level and smooth, with no curved, high, or hollow parts

Lawn- an area of grass, especially near to a house or in a park, which is cut regularly to keep it short

Orchard- an area of land where fruit trees (but not orange trees or other citrus trees) are grown

Kitchen- a room where food is kept, prepared and cooked and where the dishes are washed

Pantry- a small room or large cupboard in a house where food is kept

Dining room- a room in which meals are eaten

Living room- the room in a house or apartment that is used for relaxing, and entertaining guests, but not usually for eating

Study- to learn about a subject, especially in an educational course or by reading books

Bedroom- a room used for sleeping in

Nursery- 1) a place where young children and babies are taken care of while their parents are at work

2) a room in a house where small children sleep and play

Bathroom- a room with a bath and/or shower and often a toilet

Modern- designed and made using the most recent ideas and methods

Reproduction furniture- copies of antique (= old) furniture

Bed-a place where you can sleep on it

Sofa- a long soft seat with a back and usually arms, on which more than one person can sit at the same time

Chair- a seat for one person, which has a back, usually four legs, and sometimes two arms

Armchair- a comfortable chair with sides that support your arms

Table- a flat surface, usually supported by four legs, used for putting things on

Bookcase- a piece of furniture with shelves to put books on

Cupboard- a piece of furniture or a small part of a room with a door or doors behind which there is space for storing things, usually on shelves

Wardrobe- a tall cupboard in which you hang your clothes, or all of the clothes that a person owns

Dressing-table- a piece of bedroom furniture like a table with a mirror and drawers

Mirror- a piece of glass with a shiny metallic back which reflects light, producing an image of whatever is in front of it

Lamp- a device for giving light, especially one that has a covering or is contained within something

Standard-lamp- an electric light supported by a tall pole which is fixed to a base that rests on the floor of a room

Stool- a seat without any support for the back or arms

Units- a single thing or a separate part of something larger

The first year of the course is divided into four units.

Each unit of the course book focuses on a different grammar point.

a piece of furniture or equipment which is intended to be fitted as a part of a set of similar or matching pieces

kitchen/shelf/sink units

a small machine or part of a machine which has a particular purpose

the central processing unit of a computer

a waste-disposal unit

specialized a single complete product of the type that a business sells

Cabinet- a small group of the most important people elected to government, who make the main decisions about what should happen

Suite- a set of connected rooms, especially in a hotel

Electricity- a form of energy, produced in several ways, which provides power to devices that create light, heat, etc

Gas- a substance in a form like air that is used as a fuel for heating and cooking

Running water- water supplied to a house by pipes

Central heating-

Telephone- a system of heating buildings by warming air or water at one place and then sending it to different rooms in pipes

Toilet- a bowl-shaped device with a seat which you sit on or stand near when emptying the body of urine or solid waste, or another device used for this purpose

Lift- to move something from a lower to a higher position

Vacuum cleaner- a machine which cleans floors and other surfaces by sucking up dust and dirt

Food and meals

Breakfast-a meal eaten in the morning as the first meal of the day

Lunch- a meal that is eaten in the middle of the day

Dinner- the main meal of the day, usually the meal you eat in the evening but sometimes, in Britain, the meal eaten in the middle of the day

Supper- a main meal eaten in the evening, or a small meal eaten in the late evening

Dessert- sweet food eaten at the end of a meal

Plate- a flat, usually round dish with a slightly raised edge that you eat from or serve food from

Glass- a hard transparent material which is used to make windows, bottles and other objects

Cup- a small round container, often with a handle, used for drinking tea, coffee, etc.

Saucer- a small curved plate which you put a cup on

Teapot- a container for making and serving tea with a handle and a shaped opening for pouring

Kettle- a covered metal or plastic container with a handle and a shaped opening for pouring, used for boiling water

Fork- a small object with three or four points and a handle, that you use to pick up food and eat with

Spoon- an object consisting of a round hollow part and a handle, used for mixing, serving and eating food

Knife- a tool, usually with a metal blade and a handle, used for cutting and spreading food or other substances, or as a weapon

Bread- a food made from flour, water and usually yeast, mixed together and baked

Meat- the flesh of an animal when it is used for food

Fish- an animal which lives in water, is covered with scales, and which breathes by taking water in through its mouth, or the flesh of these animals eaten as food

Butter- a pale yellow solid containing a lot of fat that is made from cream and is spread on bread or used in cooking

Eggs- eggs mixed with a little milk and mixed again as they are being fried

Cheese- a food made from milk, which can either be firm or soft and is usually yellow or white in colour

Sugar- a food made from milk, which can either be firm or soft and is usually yellow or white in colour

Sausage- a thin tube-like case containing meat which has been cut into very small pieces and mixed with spices

Bacon- (thin slices of) meat from the back or sides of a pig which is often eaten fried

Herring- a long silvery coloured fish which swims in large groups in the sea, or its flesh eaten as food

Potatoes- small potatoes that are taken out of the ground earlier than the others in the crop

Tomatoes- a round red sharp-tasting fruit with a lot of seeds which is eaten cooked or raw as a savoury food

Carrots- a long pointed orange root eaten as a vegetable

Cabbage- a large round vegetable with large green, white or purple leaves, which can be eaten cooked or raw

Cucumbers- a long thin pale-green vegetable with dark green skin, usually eaten uncooked in salads

Beets- a plant with a thick root, which is often fed to animals or used to make sugar

Peas- soft, cooked marrowfat peas (= a type of large pea)

Salt- a common white substance found in sea water and in the ground, which is used especially to add flavour to food or to preserve it

Mustard- a thick yellow or brown sauce that tastes spicy and is eaten cold in small amounts, especially with meat

Pepper- a greyish black or creamy coloured powder produced by crushing dry peppercorns, which is used to give a spicy hot taste to food

Water- a clear liquid, without colour or taste, which falls from the sky as rain and is necessary for animal and plant life

Milk- the white liquid produced by cows, goats, and sheep and used by humans as a drink or for making butter, cheese, etc

Tea- a drink made by pouring hot water onto) dried and cut leaves and sometimes flowers, especially the leaves of the tea plant

Coffee- a dark brown powder with a strong flavour and smell that is made by crushing coffee beans, or a hot drink made from this powder

Cocoa- 1) a dark brown powder made from cocoa beans, used to make chocolate

and add a chocolate flavour to food and drink

2) a sweet chocolate drink that is made with cocoa powder

Beer- an alcoholic drink made from grain

Wine- an alcoholic drink which is usually made from grapes, but can also be made from other fruits or flowers. It is made by fermenting the fruit with water and sugar

Honey- a sweet sticky yellow substance made by bees and used as food

Soup- a usually hot, liquid food made from vegetables, meat or fish

Porridge- a thick soft food made from oats boiled in milk or water, eaten hot for breakfast

Macaroni- a type of pasta in the shape of small tubes

Salad- a mixture of uncooked vegetables, usually including lettuce, eaten either as a separate dish or with other food

Mashed potatoes- potatoes that have been boiled and crushed until they are smooth

Fried potatoes- long, thin pieces of potato that are fried and eaten hot:

Chops- to cut something into pieces with an axe, knife or other sharp instrument

Cutlets- a small piece of meat still joined to the bone, especially from the animal's neck or ribs

Beefsteak- a type of very large tomato

Chicken- a type of bird kept on a farm for its eggs or its meat, or the meat of this bird which is cooked and eaten

Goose- a large water bird similar to a duck but larger, or the meat from this bird

Pudding- a sweet and usually hot dish made with pastry, flour, bread or rice and often fruit

Cake- a sweet food made with a mixture of flour, eggs, fat and sugar

Sweets- a small piece of sweet food, made of sugar

Pie- a type of food made with meat, vegetables or fruit covered in pastry and baked

Ice-cream- a very cold sweet food made from frozen milk or cream, sugar and a flavour

Jam- a sweet soft food made by cooking fruit with sugar to preserve it. It is eaten on bread or cakes

Jelly- a soft, coloured sweet food made from sugar, gelatine and fruit flavours, that shakes slightly when it is moved

Apples- a round fruit with firm white flesh and a green, red or yellow skin

Pears- a sweet fruit with a lot of juice and a green skin which has a round base and is slightly pointed towards the stem

Plums- a small round fruit with a thin smooth red, purple or yellow skin, sweet soft flesh, and a single large hard seed

Oranges- a round sweet fruit which has a thick orange skin and an orange centre divided into many parts

Tangerines- a fruit like a small orange with a loose skin

Grapes- a small round purple or pale green fruit that you can eat or make into wine

Bananas- a long curved fruit with a yellow skin and soft, sweet white flesh inside

Berries- a small round fruit on particular plants and trees

Cherries- a small, round, soft red or black fruit with a single hard seed in the middle, or the tree on which the fruit grows

Peaches- a round fruit with sweet yellow flesh that has a lot of juice, a slightly furry red and yellow skin and a large seed in its centre

Nuts- the dry fruit of particular trees which grows in a hard shell and can often be eaten

Different

Properties - something tangible or intangible to which its owner has legal title: properties such as copyrights and trademarks

Advantage - If you have an advantage, you can do something more easily than other people. You are in a better position than other people.

Amazing - If you say that something is amazing, you think it is surprising and interesting for example, because it is very big or very good. You can also say that somebody is amazing.

announcement - You can hear announcements at an airport or at a train station. They tell important information for example, which airplanes are arriving or departing, and how to get on these airplanes.

bored - If you are bored with something that you do, you no longer want to do it, because it is not interesting. You want to do something else.

boring - If something is boring, it is not interesting. You don't want to do boring things or read boring books. You can also say that somebody is boring. You don't want to talk to boring people.

brain - The brain is the part of your body which does the thinking. Your brain is in your head.

broadcast - Television networks broadcast their programs, which means that they show them on TV and many people can watch them. Radio stations broadcast their programs, too.

build - If you build your knowledge, vocabulary, etc., you learn more and more of it.

career - Your career is the part of your life which is related to your work. If you make progress, jumps, etc. in your career, you get better and better jobs, earn more and more money, etc.





sdamzavas.net - 2020 . ! , ...