HOW TO USE DICTIONARY TO LEARN VOCABULARY
A good bi-lingual dictionary is very important for efficient language learning. A dictionary doesn’t only tell you the meaning of a word, it also tells you the grammar, pronunciation and stress. It sometimes gives you an example sentence too.
Organize your vocabulary learning.
1. Find the meaning of new words.
2. Check grammar, spelling and pronunciation.
3. Extend your vocabulary.
How can I remember new words?
The way you record and learn a word helps you remember it. For example you can:
1. Imagine the word.
2. Write a personal example.
3. Make a word map.
4. Associate it with a similar word in your language.
But you can’t learn new words just by writing them down once. You have to revise them down regularly. If you test yourself often on new vocabulary you can remember up to 80% of words.
To remember words or phrases, follow this routine.
1. Record the new word with the correct stress.
2. Try to remember it after a minute.
3. Test your memory again after an hour.
4. Remember it again the next day.
5. Test yourself after a week, then after a month.
How many words do I need to know?
Although Shakespeare used 33,000 words, English speakers today use only about 5,000 words in conversation. By the end of this course you will know at least 2,000 English words.
Learn words that are important for you.
It is impossible to remember every new word you see. Choose words that you think are useful and important. Write them down and revise them regularly.
Why do I remember some words and forget others?
Some words are easy to remember, because, for example, the word is similar to a word in you language, or it’s a word that you often use. Other words are more difficult to remember, because the spelling or pronunciation is unusual, or because you don’t often see or hear the word.
When you revise a group of words, focus especially on the ones that you find difficult to remember. Try to think why.
If you forget the same word again and again, try to think of a special way to remember it.
1. Think of image in your mind.
2. Try to associate it with another word in English or your own language.
3. Write down the word and say it a few times.
4. Write it on a card and keep it in your pocket to test yourself from time to time.
Words often have more than one meaning.
How do I know which one I want?
e.g. Where do you work? – In a bank.
The lift doesn’t work. – It’s broken.
In these sentences, the verb ‘work’ has two different meanings. Many other English words have different meanings, and they can also be grammatically different. For example, the same word can be a verb or a noun,
e.g. Book (read a book) noun/to book (to book a ticket) verb.
Look carefully at the context to decide which meaning is correct.
When you look up a word in a dictionary, you sometimes find more the one meaning.
1. Decide if the word in your sentence is a noun, adjective, verb, adverb, etc.
2. If there is still more than one meaning, look at the context again and choose the best variant.
How can I continue learning vocabulary after the course?
You can learn more words all the time, from books, magazines, songs, etc.
Remember to check the grammar and pronunciation of new words in your dictionary, as well as meaning, and record them in you vocabulary book. And don’t forget to revise all the words you have learnt in the course.
FOCUS ON SPEAKING
Good pronunciation helps you to communicate better. You can easily improve your pronunciation.
Tip 1. Concentrate on English sounds which you don't have in-your language. Try to recognize phonetic symbols. Then you can check the pronunciation
Tip 2. Many letters have more than one pronunciation. Try to see the spelling
and pronunciation rules. Many combinations of letters always make the same sounds.
Tip 3. When you pronounce a word try to exaggerate the stressed syllable. Always underline the stressed syllable on a new word.
Tip 4. Pronounce strongly the stressed words or syllables. Say the other words. Quickly without stress. Try to get the right rhythm in each sentence you say.
Tip 5. If you use the wrong intonation, the can think you are bored or unfriendly. Try to sound interested friendly.
Tip 6. Practise your pronunciation outside class.
· Use a dictionary to help you to pronounce new words.
· Use 'Listen and Speak cassette.
· Read aloud and record yourself on a cassette.
· Listen to spoken English as much as possible, e g. Songs, films.
Understanding spoken language is more difficult than reading because you don't have time to translate every word. In conversation people use a lot of contractions and weak form (words which aren't stressed) so it is impossible to hear every word clearly. When you listen to a cassette you can't see the speaker's face. This makes it more difficult.
Listening to cassettes or watching videos is a very good way to practise understanding different voices, accents, situations.
Which of these problems do you have?
1. I haven’t got enough vocabulary to say what I want to.
2. I always worry that I do many mistakes.
3. I speak to slowly, because I have to translate everything I want to say before I can say it.
4. I feel embarrassed when I speak English and I can’t express my personality.
5. I feel strange speaking English in class to people who speak my language.
If you have any of these problems, try to follow these tips.
Tip 1. If you don’t know a word or a phrase, don’t just stop. Try to find another way to express it with words you know.
Tip 2. You can always say more than you think. Don’t worry about mistakes. The important thing is to communicate what you want to say.
Tip 3. Think what you want to say before you speak. It gives you confidence.
Tip 4. Practice to speak English as much as you can. The more you practice, the more confident you’ll feel.
In class you can:
q Take every opportunity to speak English. Never use your language if you can say it in English.
q Talk as much as you can when you work in pairs/groups.
Outside class you can:
q Learn and practice the words you need to talk about your job, family, etc.
q Use ‘Listen and Speak’ cassette.
q Practice before and after class with another students.
FOCUS ON READING
What kind of books do you enjoy reading in you language?
Biographies, thrillers, detective stories, historical books, non-fiction, science fiction, romantic books, short stories, autobiographies.
What do you read in English? Have you ever read Easy readers?
What is an Easy Readers?
Easy Readers are books with simple grammar and vocabulary to help students practice reading in English. There are different levels of difficulty e.g. beginner, elementary, intermediate, etc.
How do I choose a book, which is the right level for me?
Generally, it’s best to choose one, which you can read quickly and enjoy. If you are not sure of the level, read the first page, if there are more than eight words that you don’t know the book is probably too difficult for you to enjoy reading.
What do I do when there are words in the story that I don’t know?
First decide if the word a noun, verb, adjective, etc. then try to guess the meaning from the other words around (=context).
If you can’t guess the meaning, you can either:
a) Continue reading if can still follow the story
b) Check if the words is in the Glossary at the back of the book
c) Use you dictionary.
If you can understand most of the words but can’t follow the story, try to concentrate on the story, stop regularly and ask yourself questions about the story:
7.3. Who is speaking?
7.4. What are they doing?
7.5. What’s happened?
7.6. What’s going to happen next?
Many Easy Readers include questions to answer after every chapter, to help you check your understanding of the story. Such kinds of books are great way to revise grammar and learn new words.
FOCUS ON WRITING
I. A letter to a pen friend:
1.Put your address in the top right-hand corner (but not your name).
2. Write the date below.
3. Letter always begins with “Dear…”
4. Answer the questions: who are you? Where were you born?
Where do you live? What does your family do? How old are you?
What do you do every day? Why are you learning English?
What do you like doing in your free time? What did you do last summer?
5.Finish the letter with Best wishes or Regards.
6. Sign your name.
Note: if you have forgotten smth. add with PS at the end. You may use commas, contractions.
II. A formal letter/e-mail:
1. Put your address in the top-hand corner (not your name)
2. Put the name and address of the person you are writing on the left, above the greeting
3. Write the date under your address
4. Make sure you begin with “Dear…” and use a formal ending “Yours faithfully” or “ Yours sincerely”
5.Always write “ I look forward for hearing from you’ before the ending
6. Sign your name
7. Write your name in capital letters under the signature
8. Use formal language (Could you…? I would be grateful if you could…)
Note: Don’t use contractions in formal letters.
III. Writing an interview:
1. Write an introductory paragraph by briefly describing where you the interview take place and describe the person.
2. Write the questions first. Four or five will probably be enough. Try to make them lead on from each other. Make the last question smth. about future.
IV. Writing a biography:
1. Write at least three paragraphs, one for the birth and early years, one or two for the Middle Ages, and one for the last years.
2. Link events with time expressions (immediately, after, then, later, etc.).
3. Use narrative tenses. If a person you are writing about is still alive, you may use
“ Since + Pr.Perfect in the last paragraph.
4. Be careful with prepositions of time.
V. Writing a story:
1. Always invent plot before you start writing.
2. Divide your story into three parts – opening paragraph, body of the story, closing paragraph.
3. Use a mixture of narrative tenses.
4. Link events with time expressions (immediately, after, then, later, etc.).
5. Use adverbs (desperately, fortunately, etc.) to make your story vivid.
VI. Written exercises:
These are taken to mean exercises to practice grammatical structures, taking the form of writing sentences from the prompts following a particular pattern, answering questions using a particular pattern, sentence completion, matching halves of sentences and writing out the complete sentence, and gap-filling using the correct tense or word.
The discussion on dictation raised a number of interesting points. However, dictation is a form of writing and the teacher in the group should read in short phrases repeated twice, corrected and so on. The student should recognize the word, the phrase, and the sentence.
VIII. Some writing options:
1. Think about the suggested activity or approach and how to use or adapt it in you work.
2. Think of the purpose of writing activities.
3. Compose the list of key words in chronological order.
4. Provide only a skeleton structure of the story. Provide the plan of the story.
5. Remember the basic information of the subject.
6. Try it on.
Good morning – to greet each other in the mornings
Good afternoon - to greet each other in the afternoons
Good evening - to greet each other in the evenings
Good night - to wish a sweet dream before going to bed
Good bye – saying good bye
Monday – the first day of the week
Tuesday – the second day of the week
Wednesday – the third day of the week
Thursday – the fourth day of the week
Friday – the fifth day of the week
Saturday – the sixth day of the week
Sunday – the seventh day of the week
Parents = a father or mother
Father = a male parent
Mother = a female parent
Sister= a female person having the same parents as another person
Brother = a male person having the same parents as another person
Son = a boy or man in relation to his parents
Daughter = a girl or woman in relation to his parents
Grandfather= the father of one's father or mother
Grandmother = the mother of one's father or mother
Grandson = a son of one's son or daughter
Granddaughter = a daughter of one's son or daughter
Grandchildren = the son or daughter of one's child
Grandparents = the father or mother of either of one's parents
Great-grandfather = the grandfather of one's father or mother
great- grandmother = the grandmother of one's father or mother
great-grandchildren = the grandson or granddaughter of one's child
great-grandparents = the grandfather or grandmother of either of one's parents
Uncle = a brother of one's father or mother
Aunt = a sister of one's father or mother
Cousin = the child of one's aunt or uncle
Nephew = a son of one's sister or brother
Niece= a daughter of one's sister or brother
Husband = a woman's partner in marriage
Wife = a man's partner in marriage
father-in-law = the father of one's wife or husband
mother-in-law = the mother of one's wife or husband
son-in-law = the husband of one's daughter
daughter-in-law = the wife of one's daughter
Stepfather = a man who has married one's mother after the death or divorce of one's father
Stepmother = a woman who has married one's father after the death or divorce of one's mother
Stepchildren = a stepson or stepdaughter
stepbrother (son, daughter, sister) = a son of one's stepmother or stepfather by a union with someone other than one's father or mother respectively
Worker = a person or thing that works
Mechanic = a person skilled in maintaining or operating machinery, motors, etc
Turner = a person or thing that turns, esp a person who operates a lathe
Locksmith= a person who makes or repairs locks
Farmer = a person who operates or manages a farm
Engineer = a person trained in any branch of the profession of engineering
Teacher = a person whose occupation is teaching others, esp children
Doctor= a person licensed to practise medicine
Surgeon = a medical practioner who specializes in surgery
dentist = a person qualified to practise dentistry
soldier = a person who serves or has served in an army
sailor = a person who sails
pilot = a person who is qualified to operate an aircraft or spacecraft in flight
officer= a person in the armed services who holds a position of responsibility, authority, and duty, esp one who holds a commission
salesman = a person who sells merchandise or services either in a shop or by canvassing in a designated area
saleswoman(shop-assistant, shop-girl) = a person who sells merchandise or services either in a shop or by canvassing in a designated area
research worker = a person who investigates, such as a private detective
architect = a person qualified to design buildings and to superintend their erection
lawyer = a member of the legal profession, esp a solicitor
journalist= a person whose occupation is journalism
typist= a person who types
driver = a person who drives a vehicle
actor = a male who acts in a play, film, broadcast, etc
actress = a female who acts in a play, film, broadcast, etc
composer = a person who composes music
painter = an artist who paints pictures
writer = a person who writes books, articles, etc
poet = a person who writes poetry
playwright = a person who writes plays
musician= a person who plays or composes music, esp as a profession
conductor = an official on a bus who collects fares, checks tickets, etc
chemist = a person studying, trained in, or engaged in chemistry
physicist = a person versed in or studying physics
accountant = a person concerned with the maintenance and audit of business accounts and the preparation of consultant reports in tax and finance
book-keeper = a person concerned with the maintenance and audit of business accounts and the preparation of consultant reports in tax and finance
Comfortable - describes furniture and clothes that provide a pleasant feeling and that do not give you any physical problems
Cottage – a small house, usually in the countryside
Flat – level and smooth, with no curved, high, or hollow parts
Lawn- an area of grass, especially near to a house or in a park, which is cut regularly to keep it short
Orchard- an area of land where fruit trees (but not orange trees or other citrus trees) are grown
Kitchen- a room where food is kept, prepared and cooked and where the dishes are washed
Pantry- a small room or large cupboard in a house where food is kept
Dining room- a room in which meals are eaten
Living room- the room in a house or apartment that is used for relaxing, and entertaining guests, but not usually for eating
Study- to learn about a subject, especially in an educational course or by reading books
Bedroom- a room used for sleeping in
Nursery- 1) a place where young children and babies are taken care of while their parents are at work
2) a room in a house where small children sleep and play
Bathroom- a room with a bath and/or shower and often a toilet
Modern- designed and made using the most recent ideas and methods
Reproduction furniture- copies of antique (= old) furniture
Bed-a place where you can sleep on it
Sofa- a long soft seat with a back and usually arms, on which more than one person can sit at the same time
Chair- a seat for one person, which has a back, usually four legs, and sometimes two arms
Armchair- a comfortable chair with sides that support your arms
Table- a flat surface, usually supported by four legs, used for putting things on
Bookcase- a piece of furniture with shelves to put books on
Cupboard- a piece of furniture or a small part of a room with a door or doors behind which there is space for storing things, usually on shelves
Wardrobe- a tall cupboard in which you hang your clothes, or all of the clothes that a person owns
Dressing-table- a piece of bedroom furniture like a table with a mirror and drawers
Mirror- a piece of glass with a shiny metallic back which reflects light, producing an image of whatever is in front of it
Lamp- a device for giving light, especially one that has a covering or is contained within something
Standard-lamp- an electric light supported by a tall pole which is fixed to a base that rests on the floor of a room
Stool- a seat without any support for the back or arms
Units- • a single thing or a separate part of something larger
The first year of the course is divided into four units.
Each unit of the course book focuses on a different grammar point.
• a piece of furniture or equipment which is intended to be fitted as a part of a set of similar or matching pieces
• a small machine or part of a machine which has a particular purpose
the central processing unit of a computer
a waste-disposal unit
• specialized a single complete product of the type that a business sells
Cabinet- a small group of the most important people elected to government, who make the main decisions about what should happen
Suite- a set of connected rooms, especially in a hotel
Electricity- a form of energy, produced in several ways, which provides power to devices that create light, heat, etc
Gas- a substance in a form like air that is used as a fuel for heating and cooking
Running water- water supplied to a house by pipes
Telephone- a system of heating buildings by warming air or water at one place and then sending it to different rooms in pipes
Toilet- a bowl-shaped device with a seat which you sit on or stand near when emptying the body of urine or solid waste, or another device used for this purpose
Lift- to move something from a lower to a higher position
Vacuum cleaner- a machine which cleans floors and other surfaces by sucking up dust and dirt
Food and meals
Breakfast-a meal eaten in the morning as the first meal of the day
Lunch- a meal that is eaten in the middle of the day
Dinner- the main meal of the day, usually the meal you eat in the evening but sometimes, in Britain, the meal eaten in the middle of the day
Supper- a main meal eaten in the evening, or a small meal eaten in the late evening
Dessert- sweet food eaten at the end of a meal
Plate- a flat, usually round dish with a slightly raised edge that you eat from or serve food from
Glass- a hard transparent material which is used to make windows, bottles and other objects
Cup- a small round container, often with a handle, used for drinking tea, coffee, etc.
Saucer- a small curved plate which you put a cup on
Teapot- a container for making and serving tea with a handle and a shaped opening for pouring
Kettle- a covered metal or plastic container with a handle and a shaped opening for pouring, used for boiling water
Fork- a small object with three or four points and a handle, that you use to pick up food and eat with
Spoon- an object consisting of a round hollow part and a handle, used for mixing, serving and eating food
Knife- a tool, usually with a metal blade and a handle, used for cutting and spreading food or other substances, or as a weapon
Bread- a food made from flour, water and usually yeast, mixed together and baked
Meat- the flesh of an animal when it is used for food
Fish- an animal which lives in water, is covered with scales, and which breathes by taking water in through its mouth, or the flesh of these animals eaten as food
Butter- a pale yellow solid containing a lot of fat that is made from cream and is spread on bread or used in cooking
Eggs- eggs mixed with a little milk and mixed again as they are being fried
Cheese- a food made from milk, which can either be firm or soft and is usually yellow or white in colour
Sugar- a food made from milk, which can either be firm or soft and is usually yellow or white in colour
Sausage- a thin tube-like case containing meat which has been cut into very small pieces and mixed with spices
Bacon- (thin slices of) meat from the back or sides of a pig which is often eaten fried
Herring- a long silvery coloured fish which swims in large groups in the sea, or its flesh eaten as food
Potatoes- small potatoes that are taken out of the ground earlier than the others in the crop
Tomatoes- a round red sharp-tasting fruit with a lot of seeds which is eaten cooked or raw as a savoury food
Carrots- a long pointed orange root eaten as a vegetable
Cabbage- a large round vegetable with large green, white or purple leaves, which can be eaten cooked or raw
Cucumbers- a long thin pale-green vegetable with dark green skin, usually eaten uncooked in salads
Beets- a plant with a thick root, which is often fed to animals or used to make sugar
Peas- soft, cooked marrowfat peas (= a type of large pea)
Salt- a common white substance found in sea water and in the ground, which is used especially to add flavour to food or to preserve it
Mustard- a thick yellow or brown sauce that tastes spicy and is eaten cold in small amounts, especially with meat
Pepper- a greyish black or creamy coloured powder produced by crushing dry peppercorns, which is used to give a spicy hot taste to food
Water- a clear liquid, without colour or taste, which falls from the sky as rain and is necessary for animal and plant life
Milk- the white liquid produced by cows, goats, and sheep and used by humans as a drink or for making butter, cheese, etc
Tea- a drink made by pouring hot water onto) dried and cut leaves and sometimes flowers, especially the leaves of the tea plant
Coffee- a dark brown powder with a strong flavour and smell that is made by crushing coffee beans, or a hot drink made from this powder
Cocoa- 1) a dark brown powder made from cocoa beans, used to make chocolate
and add a chocolate flavour to food and drink
2) a sweet chocolate drink that is made with cocoa powder
Beer- an alcoholic drink made from grain
Wine- an alcoholic drink which is usually made from grapes, but can also be made from other fruits or flowers. It is made by fermenting the fruit with water and sugar
Honey- a sweet sticky yellow substance made by bees and used as food
Soup- a usually hot, liquid food made from vegetables, meat or fish
Porridge- a thick soft food made from oats boiled in milk or water, eaten hot for breakfast
Macaroni- a type of pasta in the shape of small tubes
Salad- a mixture of uncooked vegetables, usually including lettuce, eaten either as a separate dish or with other food
Mashed potatoes- potatoes that have been boiled and crushed until they are smooth
Fried potatoes- long, thin pieces of potato that are fried and eaten hot:
Chops- to cut something into pieces with an axe, knife or other sharp instrument
Cutlets- a small piece of meat still joined to the bone, especially from the animal's neck or ribs
Beefsteak- a type of very large tomato
Chicken- a type of bird kept on a farm for its eggs or its meat, or the meat of this bird which is cooked and eaten
Goose- a large water bird similar to a duck but larger, or the meat from this bird
Pudding- a sweet and usually hot dish made with pastry, flour, bread or rice and often fruit
Cake- a sweet food made with a mixture of flour, eggs, fat and sugar
Sweets- a small piece of sweet food, made of sugar
Pie- a type of food made with meat, vegetables or fruit covered in pastry and baked
Ice-cream- a very cold sweet food made from frozen milk or cream, sugar and a flavour
Jam- a sweet soft food made by cooking fruit with sugar to preserve it. It is eaten on bread or cakes
Jelly- a soft, coloured sweet food made from sugar, gelatine and fruit flavours, that shakes slightly when it is moved
Apples- a round fruit with firm white flesh and a green, red or yellow skin
Pears- a sweet fruit with a lot of juice and a green skin which has a round base and is slightly pointed towards the stem
Plums- a small round fruit with a thin smooth red, purple or yellow skin, sweet soft flesh, and a single large hard seed
Oranges- a round sweet fruit which has a thick orange skin and an orange centre divided into many parts
Tangerines- a fruit like a small orange with a loose skin
Grapes- a small round purple or pale green fruit that you can eat or make into wine
Bananas- a long curved fruit with a yellow skin and soft, sweet white flesh inside
Berries- a small round fruit on particular plants and trees
Cherries- a small, round, soft red or black fruit with a single hard seed in the middle, or the tree on which the fruit grows
Peaches- a round fruit with sweet yellow flesh that has a lot of juice, a slightly furry red and yellow skin and a large seed in its centre
Nuts- the dry fruit of particular trees which grows in a hard shell and can often be eaten
Properties - something tangible or intangible to which its owner has legal title: properties such as copyrights and trademarks
Advantage - If you have an advantage, you can do something more easily than other people. You are in a better position than other people.
Amazing - If you say that something is amazing, you think it is surprising and interesting — for example, because it is very big or very good. You can also say that somebody is amazing.
announcement - You can hear announcements at an airport or at a train station. They tell important information — for example, which airplanes are arriving or departing, and how to get on these airplanes.
bored - If you are bored with something that you do, you no longer want to do it, because it is not interesting. You want to do something else.
boring - If something is boring, it is not interesting. You don't want to do boring things or read boring books. You can also say that somebody is boring. You don't want to talk to boring people.
brain - The brain is the part of your body which does the thinking. Your brain is in your head.
broadcast - Television networks broadcast their programs, which means that they show them on TV and many people can watch them. Radio stations broadcast their programs, too.
build - If you build your knowledge, vocabulary, etc., you learn more and more of it.
career - Your career is the part of your life which is related to your work. If you make progress, jumps, etc. in your career, you get better and better jobs, earn more and more money, etc.