Read it and think if the attitude of Britons towards computerization is the same as in our country

Using of Computers in Great Britain

Computers have been used more and more frequently in Great; Britain. Today many Britons use them every day. According to recent: statistics every third person has contact with a computer at work. The ability to operate at least some basic computer programs is a major requirement when applying for a job as an accountant, secretary or an administrative clerk. A lot of older people often have to learn new skills to be able to stay in their jobs. Access to personal computers is also growing. The number of people who purchase them is gradually increasing. Today most people have computers at home, others are planning to buy one soon.

Computers in Great Britain are being increasingly used in numerous walks of life. They are revolutionizing the design, printing, manufacturing, accountancy, banking, telecommunication, energetic, the mining industries and the railway system.

The computer is no longer simply an object of fascination but an absolute necessity. Many analysts are of the opinion that in a few years' time the inability to operate a computer will be treated as a kind of cultural illiteracy.

One of the main advantages is the time that can be saved by using a computer. This is especially beneficial in the workplace where employees can do their work far faster than in the past. In addition to this, a computer can be educational and fun. From a very young age children can gain basic computer skills through programs that allow them to learn, draw and play. In today's technological world this knowledge can only help them in future.

However, there are various negative aspects in using computers. The computers can do many tasks more efficiently than humans. This has led to high unemployment in many countries. What is more, computers can actually cause health problems. Endless hours in front of the screen can cause eye strain and headaches which have serious side effects.

To sum it up, it seems that computers are a useful addition to our fast-moving world of high technology. However, it must be remembered that they are here to serve us not to replace us.



Youve learned some facts about the computers in the Britishpeople's life, haven't you? Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

1) Every Briton has a computer at home today.

2) Many people have contact with a computer at work

3)The ability to operate basic computer programs is a major inrementen applying for some jobs.


Computers Origin.


Thousands years ago humans needed to count. Families wanted to know how many animals, how much food and how much land they owned. There were many ways to count and write down numbers.

Between 1000 and 500 B.C. the Babylonians invented abacus. It used small stones which they put in lines. To do calculations they were moving stones from one line to another. Although an abacus could be very fast it wasn't really a machine because it didn't do calculations automatically.

In the 17-th century people began to build calculating machines. In 1640 the French mathematician Blase Pascal made an Arithmetic Machine. During the next 10 years Pascal made 50 more machines.

In the 1960s a German called Leibnitz continued Pascal's work and made a better machine.

In the 19-th century machines changed the world. People could travel more easily and communicate more quickly. The Industrial age was being started.

The second half of the 20-th century saw the start of the Computer age. At first computers were very difficult to use, and only a few people could understand them. But soon computers began to appear in offices, then in homes. When the first computers were built in the 1940s and 1950s, they were enormous. In fact, they were as big as a room. In fact, they weighed less then 1,5 tones.

Today's computers are being preferred in every office, school, university. They are in so ordinary things: cars, CD-players, washing machines, TV-sets, etc. Modern young people can't imagine their life without computers.


The Computers People Have Been Dreaming of for a Long Time.


People had been using calculating machines long before the first computers appeared. And for over the last 60 years the scientists and engineers have been improving them. Now it is impossible to imagine our life without computers. Today they are everywhere.

Nobody can deny it. Any young specialist who wants to get a good job has to deal with computer technique. One can choose any computer configuration he needs. Some prefer laptops because they can take" them anywhere, others buy desktops. It depends upon a person's job. If you don't know which computer to choose because you are a newbie, you can ask for a piece of advice and any computer-literate person will recommend you the best one that is the closest to your ideal or dream.

Modern computers are extremely powerful, run with operating systems working with optical disks and multimedia applications, can integrate text and pictures with animation and voice applications. They have the best performance and expendability. And the most important thing is that the prices are dropping!

So, if you haven't bought the computer of your dream yet, go to the shop and look for one!



The Internet Frequently Asked Questions

The Internet is without doubt one of the most important inventions in our history. It was started in 1968 by the US government, but at first if was used mainly by scientists. Since 1990, when the World Wide Web was created, it has changed the world, and its uses are growing ;very day.

The Internet is a network of millions of computers around the world, connected by phone lines, satellite or cable, so that all the computers o the net can exchange information with each other.

Not quite so. The Internet links computers, and the World Wide Web is a system which links the information stored inside these computers.

A company or organization stores its information in electronic documents in one of the Internet computers, somewhere in the world. This computer space the company's web site has an address, in the same way that every telephone has a number. To visit a web site, you simply enter the address. The computer is connected to the web site, a document is downloaded, and a page appears on the computer screen.

When you visit a web site looking for information, some words on the page may be underlined, showing that there is more information about the subject in another document. If you click on one of these words, the Web automatically connects your computer to a new document or web site, even if this is stored thousands of kilometers away. You're surfing the net!

The main use of the Internet is to find information for your job, about your hobbies, sports or current events. You can also use the Internet to read newspapers and magazines, play games, plan your holiday or buy things from your favourite shop. E-mail makes it possible to send electronic messages anywhere in the world in seconds, and you can use the Internet to chat with people and make new friends.

If you don't use the Internet, all you need to get started is a computer, modem and a phone line. Using the Internet is getting cheaper and easier all the time. There is an exciting Internet world out there waiting for you.


1. Match the questions (a-f) with the numbered spaces (1-6) from the text.

a) What do I need in order to use the Internet?

b)What exactly is the Internet?

c) How do I 'surf the net'?

d)That's the same thin gas the Web, isn't it?

e) What can I use the Internet for?

f)What is a web site, and how do I visit one?

2. Mark the statements as T (true) or F (false).

1. The Internet was started in 1990. The Internet links computers.

To visit a web site, you simply enter the telephone number. The main vise of the Internet is to find mistakes. To use the Internet, we need a computer and a modem.

2.Using the Internet is getting more expensive.


Virtual Reality

Not long ago computers were considered an amazing invention. Today they form part of our everyday life. The latest thing today is Virtual Reality. A Virtual Reality system can transport the user to exotic locations such as a beach in Hawaii or the inside of the human body. The Virtual Reality sys tern is still in the early stages of its development. At the moment it is necessary to put a large helmet on your head to see the simulated world and you have to wear a special glove on your hand in order to manipulate the objects you see there. Lenses and two miniature display screens inside the helmet create the illusion that the screen surrounds you on every side, You can look behind computer generated objects, pick them up and examine them, walk around and see things from a different angle.

Already today virtual reality is used in medicine. In hospitals, surgeons could plan operations by first travelling through the brain, heart or lungs without damaging the body. It is also used in police training schools. In schools pupils could explore the Great Pyramid or study molecules from the inside. Developers of Virtual Reality say its potential is powerful.

The word which comes closest to describing Virtual Reality is simulator. Virtual Reality technology resembles the flight simulators that are used to train pilots. But of course there are dangers as well as benefits. In the wrong hands Virtual Reality can be used for power fantasies and pornography.


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