Creolized texts in communication of the 21st century
English in CREOLIZED TEXTS
Communication in retrospect: Before written language, humankind communicated orally and pictorially. Pictorial component is found in pyramids of Ancient Egypt, in the tapestry about historic battle at Hastings in 1066. Much later pictorial communication became a component of numerous texts such as comics, cartoon, memorabilia etc.
l As modern technology is radically transforming, the reach, speed and methods by which individuals and organisations communicate are also witnessing tremendous changes. The development of information and communication technologies has multiplied our ability to produce, circulate and store large amounts of data.Multimedia technology has helped a great lot in the field of communication. New technological opportunities triggered lots of other opportunities and challenges in communication and posed a question about Visual and Interactive Rhetoric, Digital Rhetoric, Visual Structure and Information Design, Visual Information Design which make it possible to combine infotaiment & edutainment. As a result creolized texts (combination of pictorial and verbal components) which can be both printed or might exist in hypertext format in the Internet mushroomed in present-day communication.
l Presently, writing for the Internet is characterized by Convergence, Multimodality, Hybridization.These factors were promoted by Web 2.0 which is a collection of Web-related technologies that enhance the usability, accessibility, and interactive quality of online content, using the latest capabilities of applets, scripts, and software. Web 2.0 represents a fundamental shift in user interaction with Web content to create personalized and customized products. Web 2.0 technologies provide platform flexibility by running many applications client-side through the use of a standard Web browser.
l Convergence.The concept of convergence is often referred to as a place where media forms ‘‘collide’’. It would be more accurate to describe it as a place where they interact, overlap, and gather. Convergence has placed a new set of demands upon media producers: it is no longer enough to have a story told in one format and one format only.Convergence involves considering many aspects including technologies, cultures, communities, and media. Technology convergence involves the merging of older and different forms of technology into new devices. Some examples of print-to-digital hybrids include cellular telephones, laser printers, Adobe’s Portable Document Format, and alphanumeric keyboards, to name just a few. Some of these fledgling technologies emerge as hybrids, straddling the old and the new, and are particularly obvious during times of transition between one dominant form of communication, such as print, and another, such as digital (Ong 1982; Heim 1999).
l The days of single-media interactions are numbered if not gone: the same print publication you now read online has links to other print stories, clips of video and audio, and might include a gallery of still photos as well. It is all packaged in a digital format, so it is up to the user to choose the format to experience the media; indeed, the same story might be available in each format or a hybrid of formats. Convergences of technologies have given computers and offshoot mobile computing devices the ability to capture visual images, write texts, and communicate asynchronously or synchronously, which in turn, allows users to access and share content over the Internet from virtually any location, using a variety of methods and media.
l Readers have also become content users and producers, assuming a more active role that requires them to problem solve, search, browse, and interact with online content. Most individuals rarely read full texts online, but rather resort to filtering, keyword searching, and navigating to digest texts for pertinent information. Readers have a remarkable adaptability to navigating complex structures and interactive content found online. This ability makes them avid users and monitors of online content, but also has them seeking more dynamic content, customized and personalized to their information needs. Eye tracking studies have also revealed differences in how readers conceptualize, navigate, and problem solve when interacting with online content pages. Research has also revealed complex patterns by which users locate and discern navigation tools, content objects, and reference links. However, convergence has also brought with it significant benefits— including some the news business salivated over the idea of—for a long time, including: Dialogue with readers: Actually, it is a dialogue and working relationship in some cases with users who also produce their own content. This is one of the many doubled-edged sword relationships media must deal with.
l Multimodality.Multimodality, or the ability to work with multiple forms of media, is an increasingly desired digital literacy skill for both readers and writers of electronic content. Literate readers and writers must be able to switch between media forms in composing and learning, including audio, video, interactive, static, visual, spatial, and textual content. These changes in literacy highlight an important aspect of transformation theory—that from each shift in the dominant medium, some aspects from the previous culture are preserved, some are supplanted, and others are remediated and integrated into the new dominant culture.
l Hybridization.Hybridization has also been an influential technology trend in electronic culture. As we make the transition from a print-based culture to an electronic-based one, a number of hybrid forms have emerged (and converged), such as the electronic printer, printable versions of electronic documents (such as Adobe’s Portable Document Format), indices, styluses, and many others. On one hand, these hybrids may be symptomatic of our culture’s transition from one dominant form to another. On another, they may be prototypes that reflect emerging characteristics of electronic culture, and related technologies to come.
l Creolization of present-day communication entailed emergence of new genres, for example, creolization of logos (logotypes), for example Google Doodles:
Creolization of the logo can be partial and full:
Symbolism is used widely:
fonts as symbols
animated Google Doodles
l One more genre of present-day communication is favicon – a sign of the company or web-site in ICO format.
Favicons can fully coincide with the logos or can be transformed:
Favicon and emblem (logo) of Toyota
Favicon and emblem (logo) ofDonna Karan New York
l IT, multimedia technologies have globalizing effect in communication due to
globalisation or mondialisation.
globalisation VS localization
l Global → local, when a brand is localized to local condition. For example, Yahoo, the company which owns Flickr, has localized the global brand by providing an interface in different languages. Localization can be traced in advertising campaigns:
l The reverse process can be observed: Local → global. We are also seeing activity in the opposite direction, that of making the local global. People by their writing have made the local global. The process reveals itself via the rhetoric of e-empowerment, consider the extent to which “the public” can be said in any meaningful sense to have taken control of global media, framed a new “digital” democracy, and created a world where anyone, anywhere, may express his or her beliefs, no matter how individualized.
l Linguistic Simplicity in the communication of the 21st century
l If asked to evaluate the relative degrees of linguistic simplicity of a conversation between an adult and a child, on the one hand, and a legal document, on the other, most people would probably and consistently rate the former as simpler than the latter. What is referred to Literacy Studies or New Literacy Studies (NLS) is nowadays a well established tradition of research developed in Britain and North America, but drawn on and further developed by researchers in many other countries and regions.
l Simplification reveals itself in thecommunicative fragment (CF) viewed asthe principal unit of speech vocabulary. The main purpose is familiarization of the unfamiliar: speech artifacts (SA) and speech prototypes (SP). For instance, the one-word inscription TAXI, or the exclamation Taxi!, serves as a CF, and as such is communicatively charged. Communicative contour (CC): a prefabricated sketch of the utterance -Each conventional utterance, to be perceived as such, has to follow a recognizable overall pattern. When it does, it can be instantly grasped by speakers in its wholeness, no matter how complex or heterogeneous is the packaged material.
l Creolized texts can also be CF
l Recognizing symbols is a significant area of knowledge building and meaning making, and since some symbols are words, they have to be recognized and understood (Potter 2004). As an assortment of symbols or letters grows, so does the level of interpretation required to understand how it fits together and what it means.
l BRICOLAGE. A process of bricolage, that is, combining different images to create new forms, appears in the new media transmission and is characteristic of a consumer society, and there is evidence of alterations and selections that represent national and regional identities.
l Masda advertising