The day pictures were born
How Art Made the World
1. The functions of images. – Image dominate our lives, telling us what to think and how to feel
2. What image is dominant among many others in art – image of human body
3.What is the first known image of a human body – Venus of Willendorf
4. Where is the image kept now – Willendorf
5. What does Venus of Willendorf symbolize? – fertility, which would explain the exaggeration of female anatomy
6. Who offered the hypothesis explaining the unrealistic image of Venus? – Neuroscientist Ramachandran
7. The result of experiment with the seagulls - Peak shift is fundamental in understanding why we prefer exaggerated images of the human body.
8. What features of nomadic images didn’t survive till the Great Civilization of the Middle East – Big Shapes
9. The principle trait of Egyptian art – images were schematic and conceptual. Their schematic and conceptual image of the body mapped within a grid system.
10. The principle of creating figures in Ancient Egypt – Proportional size and grid system
11. The specific of Ancient Greek view on human body – healthy and beautiful body is the symbol of a GODS and GODESSES)
12. The true realistic image – Like Kritian Boy. They stopped this realism cause it was too real for some reason that they were dissatisfied with it.
13. Art revolution created by Ancient Greek artists – They had to interesting things with the human forms, such as distorting in lawful, ways in order to exaggerate the brain’s aesthetic response to the body
14.Who made the breakthrough and in what way – Sculptor Polyclitus developed a breakthrough technic that allowed sculptures to be created showing the physical potential of the body
15.Why do not we depict reality realistically? – Humans don’t really like reality. We prefer exaggerate more human than human.
The day pictures were born.
2.How did ancient roman artists depict their objects. They painted their pictures in dark caves too, well away from eyes of admires.
3. What discovery, when and by whom was made in Spain and where exactly. Cave in the Hill side of Altamira, Northern Spain. Marcellino Sant de Sautuloa in the autumn of 1879
4.What was the next discovery of cave painting where the whole gallery of prehistoric pictures was made. They were aurochs, the species of ox that had long be extinct.
5.When did the changes in human life start when people began creating cave painting, how is this period called. Ice age. Following discovery of Altamira, other paintings came to light in France, Spain.
6.The first explanation of the causes and meaning of prehistoric painting. They are not just pictures of every day life, but they were about spiritual experiences in a trance state.
7. What were the objects of attention of prehistoric artists. Aurochs, a species of ox that had been extinct horses, deer, mammoths and hunting scenes.
8.Who offered the first interpretation of cave painting. Abbe Henri Breuil
9.In what places the prehistoric artists panted their images. In caves, on rock walls.
10.Where and by was the next theory offered. Professor David Luis Williams. In South Africa, Dragon mountain.
11.Why was it impossible to us Bushmen themselves about the meaning of their painting. They became extinct, miles away and rocks disappeared
12.Who was the last scholar who interwied the Bushmen from Dragon back. How many documents did he leave. Vilgelm Bluck, 20000 documents.
13. Where did David Williams find the clue to solve the mystery. Namibia?, Capetown!
14.Why did the investigation lead the Institute of Psyhiatry. People often see zigzag lines, rows of points, bright flashes, feeling strong headache.
15.The result of the whole investigation. If the artists goes into cave with no source of light, they might just start seeing this flashes.
PYRAMID: BEYOND IMAGINATION
1.For which pharaoh was the Great Pyramid of Giza built. Khufu.
2. What phrase was used during the conscriptions. By the name of Pharaoh(èìåíåì Ôàðàîíà!)
3. Whom did the pharaoh’s men choose for building the pyramid. Õåìèíó – àðõèòåêòîð, áðàò Õóôó
4. How did ideology justify the conscription. Pharaoh was the God on the Earth, and workers must provide the way to the Heaven(to the Gods for the Pharaoh)
5. The unique feature of Nile river. During the river’s flood, Nile leaves sludge on banks of the river, which made the land fertile
6. What pyramid was built first? For whom? What did it symbolized? Pyramid – is the symbol of life of Egyptians.
7. When, according the tradition, was the foundation of the pyramid laid?
8. How many layers of stone blocks were planned for the Great Pyramid?200 layers
9. What material was use for making blocks? Limestone
10.How many tones of stone were used to build the pyramid? 5 000 000 tonnes
11.How many skilled stonecutters worked with blockes? 1500
12.How many tones did every block weigh? Average – 2,5 tonn
13.What method was used to carry blocks of stone?
14.How many working days?9days,10 – holiday
15.How many pharaohs were planned to be buried?3
16.How did the top of pyramid look like? Top of pyramid has the square of 10 football pitches
17.Who was the main architect of pyramid? Cousin Khemiunu
18.What story about “Indestructibles” was told? The Bird – the end of journey(stars)
19.What the function of 9 granite blocks?=top of the pyramid, 200tonnes each of them
20.Khufu’s builders belief. Stars – is the Resident of Gods. Eternal life.
1.What is percentage of the Indian population of the world? Every person on the Earth is the Indian.
2. What is the main feature of the Indian economy. Industry.
3. What the ambition of Indian government. To be a hyper power.
4. How long have Indian traditions being preserved. 2000 years ago.
5. How many world great religious have the birth place? In India 4.
6. What is the Indian population? 1 billion
7. What is the lengths Indian sacred river? What percentage of the world population does it support? 1300 km. 12 %
8. How many Hindus live in India nowadays? 800 000
9.What is the Ganges for Hindus? What is its power? Ganges is the goddess for them. Goddess which purify the soul
10.How do the population of the Ganges river bank call themselves? Children of Ganges.
11. How many pilligrims come annually to the Ganges river to pay homage? Thousands.
12.Why do Hindus hold the ritual of cutting of children’s hair? With this cutting hair they left past life and began the new one.
13.How many religions do exist in Indian sub continent today. 22
14.Why is Mumbai considered to be the special city in India? It’s the business and religious centre.
15. What is « Mumbai explosion» Overpopulation.
16. What is the statistics of Indian poverty? ????
17.What is the meaning of wedding ceremony in India? Tradition, culture, welfare, casts
18. What percentage of marriages is arranged in India? 95 %
19. What is the Indian spiritual centre in the Himalayas? Ashiram
20. Who unify the Southern and Northern Kingdoms of India for the first time? When did it happen? Ashram school
21. How and when did Islam appear in India? Mogols invasion
22. How many Muslims are there in India? 160 mln
23. When did Britain take control over the entire subcontinent?1857
24. What was the reason of the division of the Indian territory into India and Pakistan?1947,religion course
25. What is the youngest Indian religion and how many its adherents are there in India? Sikhism,16century
26. What are the main features of Sikhism in India? Not to shave their beards, wear turban
To death and back.
1)Where did group of archeologists find the first unusual sculls? How many of them? To what period of the history did they belong?In Middle East, Ukraine, South Asia. 9 of them. 9 thousand years.
2) Where were decorated sculls located?Someone’s house/ living place
3)What was psychological conclusion about the cause of death images creation?We understand that death is inevitable. We can’t imagine world without us. And we try to find sth positive? That death is not so bad.
4)How did the psychological experiment help to solve the problem of decorated sculls? When we are looking at images of dead me become calm.
5) What was the powerful civilization, which dominated the territory of modern Peru?When did it dominated? Moche, 2-8 century
6) What did Stiff Buzhei excavated?Temple of the Moon.
7)What was Buzhei’s discovery?Human remains; 70 skeletons – not natural death; divided ritual sacrifices; art as documentary.
8) What civilization has made human sacrifices in colossal scale?Aztecs
9) How do the Aztecs’ descendants continue the sacrificial tradition of their ancestors?Corrida
10)What happened in 1487 at the Gret Pyramid of Tenochitlan?Sacrifice prisoners – 40 000 death for 4 days.
11)Whatare the main features of the Aztec Great Pyramid structure?114steps; 2 killing rooms.
12)what the Aztecs do after the sacrificial rituals?They documented all have done.
13)How does the stature of Quetlique look like?Woman with neck less, done from scull , hearts, hands.
14)How does the stature of Miklantihuchi – the God of sacrifice – look like?Skull without skin: divided.
15)why the Aztecs fill their life with the image of the horrific sacrificial butchery?
16)How does the Stone of the Sun look like?In the centre – head: in hands 2 hearts; in mouth knife.
17)What political meaning did the Aztec cultivation of death images have?Control of the nation: by control of the death
18)What was result of the second psychological investigation?Thoughts about the death support the “supporters” of the death
19) What was death for Etruscans?Joyful continuation of life.
20)Who first created the image of redemption?Orvicto, 2 images” Heaven & Hell
21)What double meaning does the image of crucifixion have?Self-sacrificing: 1) pain, suffering, loss; 2) hope