FROM THE HISTORY OF HUMAN CULTURE
EXERCISE 1. Read, translate, and study the use of the new words:
1) a way, a way of life. There are different ways of doing things. Culture is a people's whole way of life.
2) to create. This thing was created by the group of people.
3) beliefs, customs, inventions. Culture includes arts, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, technology and traditions.
4) similar. The term "civilization" is similar to the term "culture".
5) a feature. Every citizen has its specific features.
6) to share needs. Basic needs are shared by all people.
7) to obtain. They obtain knowledge at school.
8) shelter. They obtain food and shelter.
9) courts, prisons. There is a system of police, courts, and prisons.
10) to protect against invaders. Every culture has ways to protect itself against invaders.
11) artistic expression. Every culture has forms of artistic expressions, such as painting, music, etc.
12) to differ from. Cultures differ from one part of the world to another.
13) to influence the behaviour. Culture influences the behaviour of the people.
14) to come across. They come across other ways of doing things.
15) to deal with. Sometimes we deal with the persons of another culture.
16) uneasy. I felt uneasy.
17) step. Step by step we are studying the English language.
18) growth. There are some important steps in the growth of culture.
19) a tool. One of the important steps in the growth of culture is the development of tools.
20) a human being. The early human being learned to make tools.
21) stone. The tools were made of stone.
22) bone, skin. The things were made of bone, hair, skin, and wood.
23) to learn habits. They learned habits of animals.
24) to plant crops, to rear animals. People had to plant crops and to rear animals.
25) to occur. It occurred about 9000 B.C. (Before Christ).
26) to appear. By 3500 B.C. cities had appeared.
27) to make up. All this knowledge made up the growth of culture.
28) to record. People could record their thoughts.
29) a generation. People could pass their thoughts from generation to generation.
EXERCISE 2. a) Translate, analyze the following words with different suffixes, and divide them into two groups: nouns and adjectives:
culture, social, scientist, literature, invention, language, tradition, civilization, feature, basic, invader, relationship, religious, artistic, expression, addition, scientific, biological, comfortable, difference, foundation, prehistoric, important, development, being, hunter, farmer, artist, builder, writing, generation;
b) Make up as many words as you can by combining different parts of the words:
Exercise 3. The word in capitals at the end of each of the following sentences should be changed to form a word that fits suitably in the blank space:
1. It was the ... of the ancient times INVENT. 2. He had a ... seat in the bus COMFORT. 3. He was ... to her DIFFER. 4. One of the important steps was the ... of writing DEVELOP. 5. People became artists and ... BUILD.
EXERCISE 4. a) Try to match up the adjectives in column A with the nouns in column В to form meaningful phrases:
b) Decide which of the verbs on the left collocate with the nouns on the right:
EXERCISE 5. Translate the following word combinations; pay attention to the prepositions:
for a whole way of life, in its narrow meaning, in such fields, consists of, ways of creating things, refers to, any way of life, result from basic needs, are shared by, a system of courts, to protect against invaders, in their details, from one part of the world to another, for example, from culture to culture, come across other ways of doing things, within their own culture, with persons of another culture, differences in behaviour, for human culture, in prehistoric times, in the growth of culture, the development of tools, the start of fanning, the growth of cities, the development of writing, about 2 million years ago, for food, things of bone, the habits of the animals, about 9000 B.C., one of the steps, by 3500 B.C., aspects of their culture, from generation to generation.
EXERCISE 6. a) Translate the following definitions of the words:
1. A custom is an established and habitual practice of a religious or social kind that is typical of a particular group of people. 2. To invent means to make or produce a new or useful things or ideas for the first time. 3. Similar means of the same kind but not exactly the same in nature or appearance. 4. To obtain means to become the owner of something. 5. To protect means to be safe.
b) The following words also appear in the texts and dialogues; match each one with its correct definition:
skin, growth, uneasy, a tool, to rear
1. to feel uncomfortable; 2. the increasing in size; 3. a simple instrument that is held in the hands and used for doing special jobs; 4. the natural outer covering of an animal or human body; 5. to care for until fully grown.
EXERCISE 7. Read and translate sentences; memorize the use of tenses:
1. This thing was created by the group of people long ago. 2. This thing has just been created by the group of people. 3. The culture is being protected against the invaders. 4. The cultures differ from one another. 5. I have come across a new word. 6. We often deal with persons of different cultures. 7. Culture influences the behaviour of people. 8. The scientists are learning the habits of animals. 9. It occurred about 9000 B.C. 10. By 3500 B.C. cities had appeared.
EXERCISE 8. Transform these sentences according to the models to practice the use of tenses:
a) Model: We usually invite our friends to our house. → We are inviting our friends to our house now.
1. As a rule, scientists study the habits of animals. 2. Sometimes we learn the rules. 3. Every weekend we visit our relatives. 4. We always listen to music 5. We often play different games.
b) Model: I read the book a year ago. → I was reading the book all evening yesterday.
1. My mother cooked breakfast for us an hour ago. 2. They planted crops long ago. 3. They visited their relatives last weekend. 4. My brother bought the sweater the day before yesterday. 5. Yesterday we spent our time together.
EXERCISE 9. Fill in the blanks with the proper grammar forms of the verb; the verb is given in brackets at the end of each sentence:
1. As a rule, the term "civilization" ... to more advanced ways of life (to refer). 2. Every culture ... the ways to protect itself (to have). 3. This thing ... recently (to create). 4. They always ... goods from the foreign countries (to obtain). 5. At present scientists ... different cultures (to study).
EXERCISE 10. a) Read the text and try to focus on its essential facts. Choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph: 1) Specific Features of Different Cultures 2) What is Culture? 3) Common Features of Different Cultures
b) Make a précis of the text, using the following phrases:
1) The title of the text is... 2) The text is about... The text deals with... 3) The text covers such points as... 4) It should be underlined that... 5) In conclusion, I may say that... 6. To my mind... In my opinion...
Culture is a term, which is used by social scientists for a people's whole way of life. In its narrow meaning, culture is activities in such fields as art, literature, and music. Social scientists consider that a people's culture consists of all ideas, objects, and ways how people create things. Culture includes arts, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, technology, and traditions. The term "civilization" is similar, but it refers mostly to scientifically more advanced ways of life. A culture is any way of life, simple or complex. All cultures have features that result from basic needs, which are shared by all people. Every culture has methods of obtaining food and shelter. There is also a way to keep order: a system of police, courts, and prisons. Every culture has ways to protect itself against invaders. It also; has family relationships, religious beliefs. All societies have forms of artistic expression, such as painting, music, etc. In addition, each culture has some type of scientific knowledge. Cultures differ in their details from one part of the world to another. For example, eating is a biological need. But what people eat, when and how they eat, and how food is prepared differ from culture to culture. People do not realize how greatly culture influences their behaviour until they come across other ways of doing things. People feel most comfortable within their own culture, and they prefer the company of others who share their culture. When people have to deal with persons of another culture, even small differences in behaviour may make them uneasy.
EXERCISE 11. Read and give a summary of the text.
FROM THE HISTORY OF HUMAN CULTURE
The foundations for human culture developed in prehistoric times. Important steps in the growth of culture include the development of tools, the start of farming, the growth of cities, and the development of writing. The development of tools began about 2 million years ago. The early human beings learned to make stone tools and kill animals for food. Prehistoric people probably made things of bone, hair, skin, and wood. The hunters also learned the habits of the animals. Such learning is a simple kind of scientific knowledge. Then people had to plant crops and rear animals for food. They became the first fanners. It occurred about 9000 B.C., and it was one of the most important steps in the growth of human culture. By 3500 B.C., cities had appeared. People became artists and builders, judges and priests. All their new knowledge and skills made up the growth of culture. The development of writing is one of the most important steps. The first system of writing was developed about 3500 B.C. People could record their thoughts and aspects of their culture and could pass them in a written form from generation to generation.
EXERCISE 12. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations:
ученые в области социологии, образ жизни, в узком значении, деятельность в таких областях как, ученые считают, способы создания, культура включает, виды искусства, главным образом, более продвинутый образ жизни, которые являются результатом, основные нужды, которые разделяются всеми людьми, методы получения пищи и крыши над головой, поддерживать порядок, суды и тюрьмы, защищать себя, против захватчиков, семейные отношения, религиозные вероисповедания, художественное выражение, живопись, вдобавок, научное знание, различаются в деталях, например, принятие пищи, различается от культуры к культуре, как сильно культура влияет на поведение людей, встречаются с другими способами, в пределах своей собственной культуры, вынуждены иметь дело с, даже маленькая разница, может заставить чувствовать себя некомфортно, основы человеческой культуры, в доисторические времена, рост культуры, создание орудий труда, начало ведения сельского хозяйства, создание письменности, древние люди, каменные орудия труда, для приготовления пищи, вероятно, изучали привычки животных, научное знание, вынуждены, были, выращивать урожаи, выращивать животных, это случилось, к 3500 году до нашей эры, города появились, художники и строители, судьи и священники, знания и навыки, составляли, была создана, могли записывать, передавать в письменной форме, от поколения к поколению.
EXERCISE 13. a) Find in the texts the words, which have the similar meanings as the following words:
applied, all, sense, progressive, main, getting, to defend, kind, to understand, to meet, uncomfortable, the beginning, perhaps;
b) Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following words:
wide, less, complex, big, easy, the end, finished, to disappear, old.
EXERCISE 14. Fill in the blanks with the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you:
1. I don't like his w... of life. 2. The European cultures are s.... 3. But every culture has its specific f... . 4. I s... the room with my brother. 5. There are some forms of artistic e... in every culture. 6. They obtain f... and s... . 7. I have never c... a... such a word. 8. Culture influences the b... of the people. 9. We are studying English s... by s... . 10. The ancient people made things of b... and s....
EXERCISE 15. Find in the texts, translate, and analyze: a) grammar forms with the ending -еd:
is used, the hunters learned, are shared, it occurred, is prepared, cities had appeared, culture developed, was developed, human beings, learned.
b) grammar forms with the ending -s:
social scientists, the foundations, a people's whole way of life, in prehistoric times, activities, important steps, in such fields, the development of tools, a people's culture, consists of, the growth of cities, all ideas, objects, 2 million years, culture includes, the early human beings, arts, beliefs, stone tools, it refers, kill animals, all cultures, have features, made things, has methods, the hunters, has ways, the habits of the animals, against invaders, had to plant crops, family relationships, had to rear animals, religious beliefs, the first farmers, societies, have forms, one of the important steps, in their details, cities, artists and builders, culture influences, judges and priests, other ways, skills, the company of others, their thoughts and aspects.
EXERCISE 16. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:
1. Culture is... 2. In its narrow meaning, culture is... 3. Culture includes... 4. The term "civilization" is... 5. All cultures have features that result... 6. Every culture has... 7. Cultures differ... 8. Culture influences... 9. People feel most comfortable within... 10. They prefer... 11. The foundations of the human culture developed... 12. The development of tools began... 13. People had to... 14. People became... 15. People could record...
EXERCISE 17. Answer the questions about the culture: 1. What does the term "culture" mean? 2. What does the term "culture" mean in its narrow meaning? 3. What does culture include? 4. What does the term "civilization" mean? 5. What common features do all cultures have? 6. What forms of artistic expression do all societies have? 7. What different features do all cultures have? 8. When do people feel most comfortable? 9. When do people feel uneasy? 10. When did the foundations for human culture develop? 11. What important steps in the growth of culture include? 12. When did the development of tools begin? 13. What did prehistoric people make things of? 14. What did the hunters learn? 15. When did the first fanners appear? 16. When did the first cities appear? 17. When was the first system of writing developed? 18. What could people record then?
EXERCISE 18. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:
1. Culture is a people's whole way of life. 2. Culture is activities in such fields as art, literature, and music. 3. Culture consists of arts and beliefs. 4. The terms "culture" and "civilization" are just the same. 5. Culture is a simple way of life. 6. All cultures are the same. 7. People feel most comfortable within their own culture. 8. People feel uneasy with persons of another culture. 9. The foundations for human culture developed in prehistoric times. 10. The development of writing is one of the important steps in the development of culture.
EXERCISE 19. a) Read and translate the following dialogue: