Moisture and Humidity Control
Uncontrolled moisture indoors can cause major damage to the building structure, as well as to furnishings and to finish materials like floors, walls, and ceilings. Uncontrolled moisture can trigger mold growth which not only damages the school facility, but can lead to health and performance problems for students and staff.
Primary causes of indoor moisture problems in new schools include:
Controlling moisture entry into buildings and preventing condensation are critical in protecting buildings from mold and other moisture-related problems, including damage to building components.
Air Distribution and Duct Insulation
Dirt and moisture should not be present in duct systems, and must be controlled to prevent mold growth. However, it is not always possible to assure that ducts remain dirt and moisture free. In many existing schools, sheet metal ducts, as well as those constructed of or lined with insulation products, are often contaminated with mold because dirt and moisture found their way into the system.
Duct board and duct liner are widely used in duct systems because of their excellent acoustic, thermal, and condensation control properties. If the HVAC system is properly designed, fabricated, installed, operated and maintained, these duct systems pose no greater risk of mold growth than duct systems made of sheet metal or any other materials.
However, the very properties that make duct board and duct liner superior insulators (e.g., a fibrous structure with large surface area that creates insulating air pockets), also makes them capable of trapping and retaining moisture if they do get wet (though the fibers themselves do not absorb moisture).
While there is an ongoing debate about the wisdom of using insulation materials in duct systems that might retain moisture longer, all sides agree that extraordinary attention to preventing moisture contamination of the duct work should be the primary strategy for preventing mold growth. See ANSI/ASHRAE Addenda 62t and 62w, Addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (available at http://www.ashrae.org/ ).
As a secondary strategy, designers should consider methods of reducing the potential for future problems to occur due to unforeseen moisture contamination by investigating insulation products now on the market that minimize the potential for moisture to penetrate the insulation material. These include foil vapor retarders, tightly bonded non-woven vapor retarders, butt or shiplap edges, and other techniques that have been developed by insulation manufacturers to address concerns about moisture.