Word formation (словообразование)
Is a branch of science of the language, which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words)
It’s a process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes.
According to certain patterns specific for the language or without any outward means.
2 major groups of word formation:
1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (словосложение), prefixation, suffixation, conversion, and back derivation)
2) Words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs.
Ex.: expressive symbolism, blending, clipping, rhyme & some others.
Common for both groups is that a new word is based on synchronic relationship between morphemes.
Different types of word formation:
Is joining together 2 or more stems.
1) Without a connecting element
2) With a vowel or consonant as a linking element
3) With a preposition or conjunction as a linking element
Native prefixes have developed out of independent words; there is a small number of them.
Old prefixes (some of them) disappeared forever (too weak phonetically)
Nowadays English has no prefixed equivalents for some German prefixes
A lot of borrowed prefixes in English:
A suffix is a derivative final element, which is or was productive in forming new words.
1) A foreign word is combined with a native affix
2) Foreign affixes are added to native words
As for the first 3 they have never become productive in English; - able was assimilated in English very early and has became productive in many words.
Semi suffixes are elements, which stand midway between full words & suffixes
a Godlike creature
A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added.
2. The simple future tense:
This page will present the simple future tense:
· its form
· and its use.
The forms of the simple future:
The simple future is formed as follows:
will = 'll
The affirmative form of the simple future:
· I think I'll buy a new computer.
· I will open the door. Someone is ringing the bell.
The interrogative form of the simple future:
· Will you buy a computer?
· Will you go to the party?
The negative form of the simple future:
will not = won't
· I will not stay at home if I finish the homework.
· I won't visit Big Ben if I go to London.
1. My working day
2. The Using of Past Simple Tense
3. Practical task
My Working Day
On week days I usually get up nearly seven o'clock. like to get up early, but I have to, because I have a lot of work to do during the day. I do my morning exercises, make my bed, wash, dress and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. My mother usually prepares breakfast for me, but sometimes I do it myself. I do not like big breakfasts, I prefer a cup of coffee and a sandwich. Then I go to school (to work). It is rather far (not far) from my house and I go there by bus (on foot). I have classes (I work) till ... o'clock. Then I come home and have dinner. After it I do my homework and do some work about the house. I sweep the floor, dust the furniture and clean the carpets with the vacuum-cleaner. Sometimes my mot-her asks me to go shopping or to help her in the kitchen. After it I have free time. I go for a walk with my friend, or watch TV, or read books, or play computer games. Then I have supper with my family. I like evenings very much because all of us get together after work and study and have the opportunity to talk and to discuss our family affairs. I usually go to bed at about eleven o'clock.
2. 2. Basic form
Subject + Verb (past form)
· I was sleepy.
· He didn't learn any Italian when he was in Italy two year ago.
· I went to the cinema, bought popcorn and watched a movie.
We use the Past Simple to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. The actions can be short or long. There can be a few actions happening one ofter another.
1. Events in the past that are now finished
2. Situation in the past
3. A series of actions in the past
Common time expressions(time adverbials) in the Past Simple are:
· the other day
· just now
· the day before yesterday
1. My future profession
2. Reported speech
3. Practical task