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Word formation (словообразование)



Is a branch of science of the language, which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words)

It’s a process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes.

According to certain patterns specific for the language or without any outward means.
(conversion)

2 major groups of word formation:

1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (словосложение), prefixation, suffixation, conversion, and back derivation)

2) Words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs.

Ex.: expressive symbolism, blending, clipping, rhyme & some others.

Common for both groups is that a new word is based on synchronic relationship between morphemes.

Different types of word formation:

COMPOUNDING

Is joining together 2 or more stems.

Types:

1) Without a connecting element
headache, heartbreak

2) With a vowel or consonant as a linking element
speedometer, craftsman

3) With a preposition or conjunction as a linking element
down-and-out (в ужасном положении, опустошенный)
son-in-law

PREFIXATION

Native prefixes have developed out of independent words; there is a small number of them.

a-
be-
mid-
fore-
mis-

Old prefixes (some of them) disappeared forever (too weak phonetically)
Æt-
Ed-

Nowadays English has no prefixed equivalents for some German prefixes
Er-
Ver-
Zer-

A lot of borrowed prefixes in English:
Auto-
Demi-
Mono-
Multi-
Semi-
Post-

SUFFIXATION

A suffix is a derivative final element, which is or was productive in forming new words.
2 groups:

1) A foreign word is combined with a native affix
- full
- less
- ness
clearness, faithless, faithful

2) Foreign affixes are added to native words
- ance
- al
- ity
- able

As for the first 3 they have never become productive in English; - able was assimilated in English very early and has became productive in many words.
Eatable
Loveable

Semi suffixes are elements, which stand midway between full words & suffixes
- like
- worthy
- way
- wise

a Godlike creature
trustworthy
clockwise
midway

CONVERSION
(zero derivation)

A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added.
Bag – to bag
Back – to back
Bottle – to bottle
This specific pattern is very productive in English
The most popular types are noun → verb or verb → noun
To take off – a take off
Conversion can be total or partial
Partial: the then president (тогдашний)
An adverb is used as an adjective, only in this particular context.
Total: work – to work



2. The simple future tense:

This page will present the simple future tense:

· its form

· and its use.

The forms of the simple future:

The simple future is formed as follows:

will / 'll + verb

will = 'll

The affirmative form of the simple future:

I, you, he, she, it, we, they will / ''ll go.

Examples:

· I think I'll buy a new computer.

· I will open the door. Someone is ringing the bell.

The interrogative form of the simple future:

Will I, you, he, she, it, we, they go?

Examples:

· Will you buy a computer?

· Will you go to the party?

The negative form of the simple future:

I, you, he, she, it, we, they will not go.
won't

will not = won't

Examples:

· I will not stay at home if I finish the homework.

· I won't visit Big Ben if I go to London.

  • We use the simple future for instant decisions.
    Example: "I've left the door open; I'll close it."
  • We use the simple future , when we predict a future situation:
    Example: "She'll pass the exam. She's hardworking"
  • We use the simple future with: "I (don't) think...", "I expect...", "I'm sure...", "I wonder...", "probably".
    Example: "It willprobablyrain tonight" , "I wonder what will happen?
  • We use the simple future in conditional sentences type one. (More on conditional sentences here):
    Example: "If I have enough time, I'll watch the film."

Card 11

1. My working day

2. The Using of Past Simple Tense

3. Practical task

My Working Day

On week days I usually get up nearly seven o'clock. like to get up early, but I have to, because I have a lot of work to do during the day. I do my morning exercises, make my bed, wash, dress and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. My mother usually prepares breakfast for me, but sometimes I do it myself. I do not like big breakfasts, I prefer a cup of coffee and a sandwich. Then I go to school (to work). It is rather far (not far) from my house and I go there by bus (on foot). I have classes (I work) till ... o'clock. Then I come home and have dinner. After it I do my homework and do some work about the house. I sweep the floor, dust the furniture and clean the carpets with the vacuum-cleaner. Sometimes my mot-her asks me to go shopping or to help her in the kitchen. After it I have free time. I go for a walk with my friend, or watch TV, or read books, or play computer games. Then I have supper with my family. I like evenings very much because all of us get together after work and study and have the opportunity to talk and to discuss our family affairs. I usually go to bed at about eleven o'clock.

2. 2. Basic form

Subject + Verb (past form)

Quick examples

· I was sleepy.

· He didn't learn any Italian when he was in Italy two year ago.

· I went to the cinema, bought popcorn and watched a movie.

We use the Past Simple to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. The actions can be short or long. There can be a few actions happening one ofter another.

Use

1. Events in the past that are now finished

2. Situation in the past

3. A series of actions in the past

Common time expressions(time adverbials) in the Past Simple are:

· yesterday

· the other day

· just now

· the day before yesterday

 

Card 13

1. My future profession

2. Reported speech

3. Practical task





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