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Use of the Subjunctive



We use subjunctives mainly when talking about events that are not certain to happen. For example, we use the subjunctive when talking about events that somebody:

  • wants to happen
  • anticipates will happen
  • imagines happening

Look at these examples:

  • The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
  • It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
  • If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.

The subjunctive is typically used after two structures:

  • the verbs: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that
  • the expressions: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that

Here are some examples with the subjunctive:

  • The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
  • The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
  • It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
  • It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.

Notice that in these structures the subjunctive is always the same. It does not matter whether the sentence is past or present. Look at these examples:

  • Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
  • Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
  • Present: It is essential that she be present.
  • Past: It was essential that she be present.

The use of the subjunctive as above is more common in American English than in English, where should + infinitive is often used:

  • The manager insists that the car park should be locked at night.
  • It was essential that we should vote as soon as possible.

We usually use the subjunctive were instead of "was" after if (and other words with similar meaning). Look at these sentences:

  • If I were you, I would ask her.
  • Suppose she were here. What would you say?

Why do we say "I were", "he were"?

We sometimes hear things like "if I were you, I would go" or "if he were here, he would tell you". Normally, the past tense of the verb "to be" is: I was, he was. But the if I were you structure does not use the past simple tense of the verb "to be". It uses the past subjunctive of the verb "to be". In the following examples, you can see that we often use the subjunctive form were instead of "was" after:

  • if
  • as if
  • wish
  • suppose
Formal (The were form is correct at all times.) Informal (The was form is possible in informal, familiar conversation.)
If I were younger, I would go. If I was younger, I would go.
If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me. If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me.
I wish I weren't so slow! I wish I wasn't so slow!
I wish it were longer. I wish it was longer.
It's not as if I were ugly. It's not as if I was ugly.
She acts as if she were Queen. She acts as if she was Queen.
If I were you, I should tell her. Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation.

Some fixed expressions use the subjunctive. Here are some examples:



  • Long live the King!
  • God bless America!
  • Heaven forbid!
  • Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
  • Come what may, I will never forget you.
  • We are all citizens of the world, as it were.

· The Subjunctive Mood

· A verb is in the subjunctive mood when it expresses a condition which is doubtful or not factual. It is most often found in a clausebeginning with the word if. It is also found in clauses following a verb that expresses a doubt, a wish, regret, request, demand, or proposal.

· These are verbs typically followed by clauses that take the subjunctive:

· ask, demand, determine, insist, move, order, pray, prefer, recommend, regret, request, require, suggest,and wish.

 

 

Card 17

1. Education system in Kazakhstan

2. The Infinitive

3. Practical task

 

1.Educational system in Kazakhstan

Educational system in Kazakhstan differs from American or Britain. At the age of two or tree children can go to a kinder-garden but it is not necessarily. The children stay in the kinder-garden the whole day. They eat, sleep and learn there. They learn different things about surrounding world, numbers and letters. At the age of five they start writing. But they write only simple elements, like circles and lines. Not all children can go to the kinder-garden. It is difficult to get place there. Parents often queue when the child is not even born! And it is expensive. So, many children stay at home until they are six. From six years they have to go to school. Children who visited a kinder-garden go strait to the first form, but those who didn't must go th the preparatory classes first. There they study everything children study in a kinder-garden and it is free.

At the elementary school children study with one teacher from the first up to the fourth forms. They study mathematics, Russian (as a native language in Russian schools and Kazakh as a native language in Kazakh schools), “cognition of surrounding world” (I don't know how to translate it correctly. It is a subject, combining biology, geography, social science and history, the simplest and fundamental topics from all this subjects), art, music, and self – actualization. It is a new subject. It is studied in all forms at school and is something like physiology, but it is not a psychology in the ordinary sense of the word. Children learn here how to communicate with others, how to be good and kind, how to see beauty and help others to see it too.

From the fifth form children go the a grammar school. They study there five years and it is often placed in the same building with elementary school. They study mathematics, native language, foreign language (mostly English but there are a few schools where children study German and French), physics, biology, geography, history of Kazakhstan and the world's history, religions (here they learn about different religions existing in the world from the secular point of view). Every subject they have once or twice a week, so they can have six or sometimes seven different subjects a day. In all forms children study Kazakh language in Russian schools and Russian language in Kazakh.

After the ninth form children can leave school for a college or they can go to the high school and study there for two years more. If they go to a college, they study all the high-school program during the first year there and only from the second year they study special subjects. After the eleventh form children pass a big exam, a test, which takes place in a one day in the whole country. Whith the results of this test children can go to a university or a college. If they go to a college after the 11th form they study one year less.

2. Form

The infinitive is the base form of a verb. It may be preceded by 'to' (the to-infinitive) or stand alone (the base or zero infinitive).

2. Infinitive with or without 'to'

The to-infinitive is used:

  • after certain verbs. e.g. want, wish, agree, fail, mean, decide, learn
  • after the auxiliaries to be to, to have to, and ought to
  • in the pattern 'it is + adjective + to-infinitive'

Examples

with 'to'

  • The elephant decided to marry the mouse
  • The mouseagreed to marry the elephant
  • Youwill have to ask her
  • Youare to leave immediately
  • Heought to relax
  • She has to go to Berlin next week
  • It's easy to speak English
  • It is hard to change jobs after twenty years
  • It's stupid to believe everything you hear

without 'to'

  • I would rather visit Rome.
  • She would rather live in Italy.
  • Would you rather eat steak or fish?
  • He would rather work in a bank.
  • I'd rather bea forest than a tree.

 

Card 18

1. Word formation in English. Minor types

2. Modal verbs

3. Practical task

1.MINOR MEANS OF WORD-FORMATIONNON-PRODUCTIVE MEANS OF WORD FORMATION IN PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH: SOUND INTERCHANGE, REDUPLICATION, BACK-FORMATION, BLENDING, DISTINCTIVE STRESS (Q.V.), ETC.

CLIPPING





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