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Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts

  • Mathematics – maths
  • Laboratory – lab
  • Captain – cap
  • Gymnastics – gym

3 types:

1) The first part is left (the commonest type)
advertisement – ad

2) The second part is left
telephone – phone
airplane – plane

3) A middle part is left
influenza – flu
refrigerator – fridge

Accepted by the speakers of the language clipping can acquire grammatical categories (used in plural forms)


Is blending part of two words to form one word (merging into one word)

  • Smoke + fog = smog
  • Breakfast + lunch = brunch
  • Smoke + haze = smaze (дымка)

- addictive type: they are transformable into a phrase consisting of two words combined by a conjunction “and”

  • smog → smoke & fog

- blending of restrictive type: transformable into an attributive phrase, where the first element serves as modifier of a second.

  • Positron – positive electron
  • Medicare – medical care


A word or word combination that appears or especially coined by some author. But it doesn’t name a new object or doesn’t express a new concept

  • Sentence – sentenceness

“I am English & my Englishness is in my vision” (Lawrence)
Word manufacturing by children:

  • Влюбчивый – вьбчивый
  • Барельеф – баба рельеф

The modal verbs are:-


Modal Example Uses
Can They can control their own budgets. We can’t fix it. Can I smoke here? Can you help me? Ability / Possibility Inability / Impossibility Asking for permission Request
Could Could I borrow your dictionary? Could you say it again more slowly? We could try to fix it ourselves. I think we could have another Gulf War. He gave up his old job so he could work for us. Asking for permission. Request Suggestion Future possibility Ability in the past
May May I have another cup of coffee? China may become a major economic power. Asking for permission Future possibility
Might We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now. They might give us a 10% discount. Present possibility Future possibility
Must We must say good-bye now. They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary. Necessity / Obligation Prohibition
Ought to We ought to employ a professional writer. Saying what’s right or correct
Shall (More common in the UK than the US) Shall I help you with your luggage? Shall we say 2.30 then? Shall I do that or will you? Offer Suggestion Asking what to do
Should We should sort out this problem at once. I think we should check everything again. Profits should increase next year. Saying what’s right or correct Recommending action Uncertain prediction
Will I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk. I'll do that for you if you like. I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday. Profits will increase next year. Instant decisions Offer Promise Certain prediction
Would Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me? Would you pass the salt please? Would you mind waiting a moment? "Would three o`clock suit you?" - "That’d be fine." Would you like to play golf this Friday? "Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "I’d like tea please." Asking for permission Request Request Making arrangements Invitation Preferences

!Note The modal auxiliary verbs arealwaysfollowed by the base form.

The verb used to, which is explained here, can also be used like a modal verb.

Card 19

1. Shopping

2. Sequence of Tenses ( Reported speech)

3. Practical task



It's difficult to imagine our life without shops. Every day we do shopping. There are different kinds of shops. They are butcher's, baker's greengrocer's where we buy meat, bread, different fruit and vegetables or clothing shops where different clothes can be bought. Nowadays supermarkets and department stores are becoming more popular where people can reserve time and find a necessary good. Some people go to the market. As for me I prefer going to the market because I am a poor student but I have many friends who prefer the department store to a market. I'd like to tell you about my neighbour. He prefers Department store in Kostroma. Where there are many departments in it. The shop sells all kinds of goods for both men and women and it has many departments. In every department there is a good selection of goods. It takes a little time to buy a necessary thing. So all this goods are of good quality and so they are very expensive. My friend adores doing shopping in the department store. As for me I dislike this shop. The service is much to desired. I think that shop assistant must help to choose good things because I have no much money I have to go to the market. On one hand market goods are cheaper on the other hand I am not sure in their quality. To tell the truth I don't like to go shopping. My mother or grandmother do shopping in my family. They do their shopping at the market because meals are always fresh and not expensive here. They buy al necessary food. But sometimes I have go to the shop if my relatives are very busy. I take a bag and go to the nearby shop. Advertisements play a very important role in our life. They often help me to make my choice. At first I read advertisements in newspapers or watch them on TV and then go to the shop. To my mind advertisements are of good adviser. We can discuss this topic very long because shops are essential part of our life.

2. Reported Speech / Indirect Speech

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