Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun refers to an indefinite, or general, person or thing. Indefinite pronouns include all, any, both, each, everyone, few, many, neither, none, nothing, several, some, andsomebody.

Something smells good.

Many like salsa with their chips.

An indefinite pronoun may look like an indefinite adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun.

The quantitative pronouns:
much, many, little, few, a little, a few, a lot of, lots of, a great deal, a great many.
1. Much, many, few, little.
We use muchand littlewith uncountable nouns: much time, muchluck; littleenergy,
little money.
We use manyand fewwith plural nouns: many friends, manypeople; fewcars, few
2. A lot (of), lots (of), plenty (of).
We use a lot of / lots of /plenty ofwith uncountable and plural nouns:
a lot of luck, lots oftime, plenty ofmoney, a lot ofpeople, lots ofbooks, plenty of
Plenty= more than enough:
e.g. Have some more to eat.No, thank you. Ive had plenty.
Theres no need to hurry. Weve got plenty of time.
3. We use muchand manymainly in negative sentences and questions:
e.g.We didnt spend muchmoney. Have you got manyfriends?
In affirmative sentences it is usually better to use a lot (of):
e.g. We spent a lot ofmoney (not we spent much money)
There has been a lot ofrain recently (not much rain)
Much and manycan be used in affirmative sentences:
as the subject: Much was known but little was done. Many knew but few came.
when modified by adverbs of degree (so, too, as, how):
Its too much trouble. You can have as much fruit asyou want.
in the function of an object:My mothermeantmuch to me.
4. Little (a little), few (a few).
Littleand few(without a)are negative ideas:
e.g. Hurry up! Weve got littletime. (= not much, not enough time).
He is not popular. He has fewfriends. (= not many, not enough friends).
We also use very littleand very few:
e.g. Weve got very littletime. He has very fewfriends.
A littleand a feware more positive ideas. A little / a few = some, a small amount
or a small number, but enough:
Lets go and have a drink. Weve got a littletime before the train leaves. (= some time,
enough time to have a drink).
Have you got any money? Yes, a little.Do you want to borrow some?
(A little = not much but enough for you to borrow some).
I enjoy my life here. I have a fewfriends and we meet quite often.
(A few friends = not many but enough to have a good time).
When did you last see Tom? A fewdays ago. (= some days, ago).
But only a little and only a few have a negative meaning:
e.g. Hurry up! Weve onlygota littletime.
The village was very small. There were only a fewhouses.


Card 23

1. Synonymy and its sources

2. The Conditional mood

3. Practical task

1.A synonym is a word of similar or identical meaning to one or more words in the same language. All languages contain synonyms but in English they exist in superabundance.

Theyre no two absolutely identical words because connotations, ways of usage, frequency of an occurrence are different.

Senses of synonyms are identical in respect of central semantic trades but differ in respect of minor semantic trades.


Total synonyms

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