An indefinite pronoun refers to an indefinite, or general, person or thing. Indefinite pronouns include all, any, both, each, everyone, few, many, neither, none, nothing, several, some, andsomebody.
Something smells good.
Many like salsa with their chips.
An indefinite pronoun may look like an indefinite adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun.
The quantitative pronouns:
much, many, little, few, a little, a few, a lot of, lots of, a great deal, a great many.
1. Much, many, few, little.
We use muchand littlewith uncountable nouns: much time, muchluck; littleenergy,
We use manyand fewwith plural nouns: many friends, manypeople; fewcars, few
2. A lot (of), lots (of), plenty (of).
We use a lot of / lots of /plenty ofwith uncountable and plural nouns:
a lot of luck, lots oftime, plenty ofmoney, a lot ofpeople, lots ofbooks, plenty of
Plenty= more than enough:
e.g. “Have some more to eat.”“No, thank you. I’ve had plenty.”
“There’s no need to hurry. We’ve got plenty of time.”
3. We use muchand manymainly in negative sentences and questions:
e.g.We didn’t spend muchmoney. Have you got manyfriends?
In affirmative sentences it is usually better to use a lot (of):
e.g. We spent a lot ofmoney (not “we spent much money”)
There has been a lot ofrain recently (not “much rain”)
Much and manycan be used in affirmative sentences:
– as the subject: Much was known but little was done. Many knew but few came.
– when modified by adverbs of degree (so, too, as, how):
It’s too much trouble. You can have as much fruit asyou want.
– in the function of an object:My mothermeantmuch to me.
4. Little (a little), few (a few).
Littleand few(without a)are negative ideas:
e.g. Hurry up! We’ve got littletime. (= not much, not enough time).
He is not popular. He has fewfriends. (= not many, not enough friends).
We also use very littleand very few:
e.g. We’ve got very littletime. He has very fewfriends.
“A little”and “a few”are more positive ideas. A little / a few = some, a small amount
or a small number, but enough:
Let’s go and have a drink. We’ve got a littletime before the train leaves. (= some time,
enough time to have a drink).
“Have you got any money?”– “Yes, a little.Do you want to borrow some?”
(A little = not much but enough for you to borrow some).
I enjoy my life here. I have a fewfriends and we meet quite often.
(A few friends = not many but enough to have a good time).
“When did you last see Tom?”– “A fewdays ago.” (= some days, ago).
But “only a little” and “only a few” have a negative meaning:
e.g. Hurry up! We’ve onlygota littletime.
The village was very small. There were only a fewhouses.
1. Synonymy and its sources
2. The Conditional mood
3. Practical task
1.A synonym – is a word of similar or identical meaning to one or more words in the same language. All languages contain synonyms but in English they exist in superabundance.
They’re no two absolutely identical words because connotations, ways of usage, frequency of an occurrence are different.
Senses of synonyms are identical in respect of central semantic trades but differ in respect of minor semantic trades.