Phraseology, classification of phraseological units

1. Phraseology, classification of phraseological units. Vinogradovs classification of phraseological units:

a) phraseological combinations (). b) unities (). c) fussions ().

a) phraseological combinations - are word - groups with a partially changed meaning. They may be said to be clearly motivated, that is the meaning of the units can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents.

Ex.to be good at smth., to have a bite.

b) unities - are word - groups with a completely changed meaning, that is, the meaning of the unit doesnt correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts.

Ex.to loose ones head (to be out of ones mind), to loose ones heart to smb.(to fall in love).

c) fussions - are word - groups with a completely changed meaning but, in contrast to the units, they are demotivated, that is, their meaning cant be deduced from the meanings of its constituent parts.

Ex.to come a cropper(to come to disaster).

The Koonins classification is the latest outstanding achievement in the Russian theory of phraseology. The classification is based on the combined structural - semantic principle and it also considers the quotient of stability of phraseological units.

I. Nominative phraseological units - are represented by word - groups, including the ones with one meaningful word, and coordinative phrases of the type wear and tear, well and good.

II. Nominative - communicative phraseological units - include word - groups, of the type to break the ice - the ice is broken, that is, verbal word - groups which are transformed into a sentence when the verb is used in the Passive Voice.

III. Phraseological units - which are neither nominative nor communicative include interjectional word - groups.

IV. Communicative phraseological units - are represented by proverbs and sayings.

2.What is a participle?

A participle is a word formed from a verb that can function as part of a verb phrase.

For example:-

has been

Or independently as an adjective.

For example:-

working woman
hot waterbottle

There are three forms of participle: The present participle, the past participle andthe perfect participle.

!Note - We use past participles (-ed) to describe how we feel. We use present participles [-ing] to describe what caused the feelings.

The present participle is a participle that ends in ing. It can be used with the auxilliary verb 'to be' to form thecontinuous tense. It always takes the ing form of the verb, even irregular verbs have an ...ing form, in fact virtually all English words that end with ing are present participles.

For example:-

I amlearningEnglish. (Learningis part of the continuous verb phrase 'am learning')

We wererunningthrough the woods. (Runningis part of the continuous verb phrase 'were running' ).

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: I am aworkingwoman. (Workingis used here as an adjective.)

!Note :-

The present participle can also be used as a noun denoting the action of a verb agerund. But remember the present participle can be used as a verb or an adjective whilst the gerund is used as anoun.

What is a past participle?

A past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the 'ed' form as it is formed by adding d or ed,to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for irregular verbs.

It can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.

For example:-

I havelearntEnglish. (Learntis part of the verb phrase 'have learnt')

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Her hair was wellbrushed.

It can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

As an adjective: He had abrokenarm. (Brokenis used here as an adjective.)

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.

The perfect participle indicates completed action. You form the perfect participle by putting the present participle having in front of the past participle.

For example:-

having done, having finished, having read, having spoken

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Having improved her English Pia's promotion prospects were much better.

Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.


Card 29

1. Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan

2. Modal verbs

3. Practical task


Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. It was founded in 1830 by Colonel Phyodor Kuzmich Shubin. Astana is situated on the bank of the Ishim River. Its total area is about 400 thousand square kilometers. The population of the city is over 800 thousand. The seat of the Government, the Mazhilis, all the ministries, foreign embassies.

P2: Astana is the seat of the Government, the Mazhilis. The President of Kazakhstan lives and work there. There are all ministries, and foreign em We can say that different branches of industry are developing in the new capital. Many plants and factories are building in Astana that will produce transformers, motors, agricultural machines and other goods.bassies in Astana. Many important political events are held in Astana. There are several museums in Astana. The largest ones are: Museum of History and Local Lore and Seiphullin Museum. Astana is famous for its theatres. The best known is the Opera and Ballet Theatre by named Kulyash Baiseitova. There are a lot of green parks and libraries in Astana. We can say that Astana is an educational center. There are many technical colleges, institutes and universities. The best known are: Euroasian University, Agrarian University, Nazarbayev University. Many young people from different regions of our country and from different countries come to Astana to get a brilliant education. There are a lot of sport facilities in Astana such as stadiums, swimming pools. And as you know Asiada Games 2011 will be held in Astana. Transport in Astana is extensive. Here you can see all kinds of transport except metro. There are railway station and airport in Astana. There is is the monument to Tole-be, Kazybek-be, Aiteke-be which is situated by the building of Supreme Court of Justice. Many people come to this monument to show their love for the best Kazakh sons. Here you can see one of the famous places in Astana Central Square. It is the main place for folk holidays, the favourite place for the rest of the town people.

P9: This Palace is called Congress Hall now. Many meetings and concerts take place there. In this building was crowned President of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev. It is a very nice building now.HISTORY OF ASTANA

The history of Astana began in the year 1830. Astana was founded in 1830 on the bank of the Ishim River by Colonel Phyodor Kuzmich Shubin as a fortress.

In 1939 was formed Akmola region and Akmola became the center of this region.

In 1954 in Akmola region the development of virgin and unused lands began. In honour of this event the town of Akmola was renamed in Tselinograd in 1961.

In 1994 Tselinograd was renamed in Akmola again.

In 1997 by Decree of President of Kazakhstan Akmola became the capital of our country.

In 1998 Akmola was renamed un Astana.

(Before listening the teacher may practice some difficult words).

Astana is not only the heart of my Motherland but its a very beautiful city with modern buildings, splendid flowerbeds, wide and straight streets, magnanimous citizens. There you can see the blue sky, which is usually is not seen in big cities. As most of the biggest capitals of the world Astana is situated on the banks of the river.

For the history the age of Astana is a moment but in a short of time one of the most important cities of Eurasia appeared. It has a great future. I wish this city become one of the best cities of the world.

Since acquiring the status of the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997 the city's face has changed dramatically. The architects and builders working in the capital create wonderful architectural ensembles, which har moniously combine modern design and oriental color.

The Baiterek Tower has become the city's symbol and its trademark. The height of the construction is 105 meters. At the mark of 97 meters there is an observation deck providing a bird's eye view of the city. The figure of 97 was not chosen at random. It symbolizes the year of moving the capital from Almaty to Astana. The Baiterek Tower accommodates an art gallery, a large aquarium and a restaurant.

Astana is turning into one of the main business centers. All governmental organizations, diplomatic missions of 44 countries and 113 joint ventures and foreign businesses are located there.

Every year the city hosts various international industrial exhibitions, conferences musical contests and festivals of Kazakhstani people.

In 1999 by the decision of UNESCO Astana was awarded the title of World City.

The city has an r and ballet theater, a drama theater and a variety of museums Monuments of Astana are a linking element between the new capital and its history held in esteem by all peoples of Kazakhstan.

Currently many administrative buildings, business and entertainment centers of the capital of Kazakhstan are under construction. Among them is Duman entertainment complex. It is a place for public recreation featuring an oceanarium, a 3D movie theater, a theater, area for slot machines and interactive games, a multifunctional sideshow venue, bowling, a night club, a casino, a hotel, cafes and restaurants and an indoor aquapark.

Another attraction of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, is the ethnopark "Map of Kazakhstan- Atameken" representing a unique outdoor museum. The map area of 1.7 hectares features cities and historical memorials of Kazakhstan.

The climate of the region is extreme with typically long and snowy winters. Average January temperature is -14 C to 18 C with dropdown below -40C. Spring is late but amazing beautiful. It comes at the end of March. At this time steppe looks especially wonderful with its wealth of blooming toffees and tulips. Summers are moderately hot, with lots of showers and dear sunny days. Average Julv temperature is pins 20 to 24 C.


Card 30

1. The Theatre

2. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

3. Practical task

At the Theatre

The 20-th century brought great change into the theatre. Television, radio, cinema, video altered the course of the major performing arts and created the new ones. But still there are hundreds of musical comedy theatres, drama theatres, opera houses, puppet theatres, philharmonics and conservatoires where the audience is excited at the prospect of seeing a play and the actors are most encouraged by the warm reception. But first, Id like to tell you some words about the theatre. It is a building where plays, operas or ballets are performed. Of course, it has a stage for the actors and an auditorium where the audience sits.


The curtain usually separates the stage from the auditorium. As a rule, the curtain is dropped of lowered between the scenes or acts of a play. The most expensive seats are in the stalls, boxes and dress-circles. The seats in the balcony, pit and the upper circle are comparatively cheaper. An intricate system of lights illuminates the stage. While the curtain is down, the workers on the stage can change the scenery and prepare the stage for the next part of the performance.


A play lives a long life it makes its appearance on the stage before the audience. It is a real part of art and its creation calls for inspiration, talent and artistic ingenuity. A playwright conceives an idea and after months of hard work his idea develops into the script of the play. And finally, when everything is ready and the rehearsal goes off without a hitch, a dress rehearsal is called. After some time the curtain rises, the play faces the audience on its first night.


As for me, I am not much of a theatre goer but sometimes I like to go to the theatre with my friends or relatives just to relax. But Ill never forget my last visit to the Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre. My mother bought two tickets at the advance box-office for the performance Eneiyda. It was a stage version based on the I. Kotlyarevskiys novel.


There were brilliant actors and actress in the cast, I should admit. The leading actress was inexpressibly moving and top favorite. It seemed to me she was at her best and the play kept the audience in suspense from beginning to end. The company gave the truly remarkable play moving, captivating, provoking laughter and tears by turns. Besides, it was a great educational value. During the interval everybody talked about the brilliant acting of the actors.


The concluding scene was exciting enough, the final moment was thrilling and unforgettable. The actors received a tremendous acclamation from the packed audience. There was no doubt it was warmly received by the audience, many of pieces were encored. I admired everything: the wonderful scenery, marvelous acting, charming music. And it was obvious that the play was a great success.

2. The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb
    have has   been   base + ing

Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense:

  subject auxiliary verb   auxiliary verb main verb  
+ I have   been waiting for one hour.
+ You have   been talking too much.
- It has not been raining.  
- We have not been playing football.
? Have you   been seeing her?
? Have they   been doing their homework?


When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have been I've been
You have been You've been
He has been She has been It has been John has been The car has been He's been She's been It's been John's been The car's been
We have been We've been
They have been They've been

Here are some examples:

  • I've been reading.
  • The car's been giving trouble.
  • We've been playing tennis for two hours.

How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a connection with thepresent or now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense:

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