Conversational Topic: KAZAKHSTAN
We live in the Republic of Kazakhstan, an independent and sovereign country. Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia. The territory of Kazakhstan is huge, being second only to the Russian Federated Republic in size, 2,7 million square kilometres. It equals territories of such states as Iran, Iraq and Turkey taken together. It borders on Russia in the north, on Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan in the south and on China in the east. As for the climate of Kazakhstan, it differs from one part to another, from the coldest in the north (about -25-30 degrees below zero), to the hottest in the south (+30-35 degrees above zero).
If you travel along the territory of our republic, you will cross high mountain peaks, swift rivers, endless steppes, sand dunes and beautiful seashores.
The population of Kazakhstan, according to the latest data, is about 16million people. Our country is multinational, it is represented by over a hundred of ethnic groups differing in language and culture, but closely interrelated by their historical fates. The largest ethnic groups are Kazakhs and Russians. But representatives of other nationalities, such as Germans, Poles, Tatars, Jews, Greeks, Koreans, Ukranians and others live and work side by side in a spirit of friendship and brotherhood. The main religions are Islam and Christianity.
Kazakhstan is a market-economy state. At present it is a highly-developed industrial and agricultural country. Kazakhstan has huge deposits of mineral resources such as: oil, natural gas, coal, gold, copper, zinc, silver and so on. Agriculture provides grain, fruit, cotton, meat, tobacco.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with presidential form of government. It is a democratic, secular, lawful and social state whose highest values are people and their lives, rights and freedoms. N.Nazarbayev has been the first president in the history of our Republic since April 1990.
National holidays in Kazakhstan are:
March, 22 – Nauruz (ancient festival of New Year considered by Kazakhs as one of the main holidays).
May, 1 – Day of Unity of People of Kazakhstan
May, 9 – Victory Day
August, 30 – Constitution Day
December, 16 – Independence Day.
The national currency of Kazakhstan is Tenge,which was introduced in 1993, November, 15.
There are two capitals in the Republic of Kazakhstan : Almaty and Astana. Almaty is the southern capital of our country. It is one of the most beautiful cities of Kazakhstan and located at the foot of the picturesque moumtains Tyan-Shan. Almaty is often called by its poetic name “ Garden-City“, because of all its orchards and gardens, laden with apples, famous ”aports”. Almaty is not only an administrative centre but also the heart of the industrial, cultural and intellectual life of our republic. There are many theatres, cinemas, exhibition halls, palaces of culture and libraries here. The city has the Academy of Sciences, which directs the scientific and educational activity of all the Universities, Institutes, Colleges and Secondary schools of Kazakhstan. The world-famous skating-rink ”Medeo”, where international championships and other sports events take place, is also in Almaty. Every day a lot guests and tourists come to Almaty to admire its architectural monuments and beautiful places of interest.
Astana, the northern capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan since 1997, is situated on a picturesque bank of the Ishim River. The architects and builders working in the capital create wonderful architectural ensembles, which harmoniously combine modern design and orient colour. The Baiterek Tower has become the city’s symbol and its visiting card. The height of the construction is 105 metres. At the mark of 97 metres there is an observation deck providing a bird’s eye view of the city. The figure of 97 was not chosen at random, It symbolizes the year of moving the capital from Almaty to Astana. The Baiterek Tower accomodates an Art Gallery, a large aquanarium and a restaurant. Astana becomes one of the biggest business centres. All governmental organizations, diplomatic missions of 44 countries and 113 joint ventures and foreign businesses are located there. Every year the city hosts various international industrial exhibitions, conferences, musical contests and festivals of Kazakhstani people.
In 1999 by the decision of UNESCO Astana was awarded the title of World City. The city has an Opera and Ballet Theatre, a Drama Theatre and a variety of museums. Monuments of Astana are a linking element between the new capital and its history held in esteem by the people of Kazakhstan.