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SECTION 3 References



The references which follow can be classified into introductory level (marked aa), more advanced and consequently more technical (marked d), and specialized, very demanding (marked).

Chapter 1 The relationship of language and culture ci


Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge University Press i996(seeText4).

This collection of papers re-examines ideas about linguistic relativity in the light of new evidence, and developments in anthropology, linguistics, and cognitive science. aa

Wilhelm von Humbold: Language: the diversity of human language-structure and its influence on the mental development of mankind. (Tr. Peter Heath). Cambridge University Press 1988 [1836].

These philosophical considerations on the spirit of nations as expressed through their national languages have had an enormous influence on linguists and philosophers alike, especially in Europe and in the Soviet Union.

George Lakoff: Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. What Categories Reveal about the Mind. University of Chicago Press 1987.

This book deals with the relationship of language and thought, and with the categories with which we apprehend reality. Chapter 18 gives a fresh look at Whorf and relativism.

Edward said: Orientalism. Vintage 1979.

A provocative study of the colonialist representation of the Orient by Western writers, i.e. their creation of an orientalist discourse that has shaped both European and Middle-Eastern cultures to this day.

Edward Sapir: Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture, and Personality. Edited by David G. Mandelbaum. University of California Press 1949 (see Texts i and 5).

A classic on language as a cultural and social product and on the interplay of culture and personality. The essays on 'Language', and 'The status of linguistics as a science' are particularly relevant here.

Emily a. Schultz: Dialogue at the Margins. Whorf, Bakhtin and Linguistic Relativity. University of Wisconsin Press 1990.

This book looks at linguistic relativity by relating Whorfian notions to the ideas of Bakhtin about dialogic interaction and its variation within and across languages, and offers a new dialogic interpretation of linguistic relativity.

Benjamin lee Whorf: Language, Thought and Reality:

Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Edited by John B. Carroll. M.I.T. Press 1956 (see Text z).

This book is the classic foundation of the principle of linguistic relativity. Chapter 2 Meaning as Sign

Michel Foucault: The Order of Things [Les Mots et les choses]. RandomHouse 1970.

This is an important, but challenging book, that discusses in an historical perspective how language has shaped the nature of knowledge and how cultural reality has been discursively constructed throughout the ages.

Roman Jakobson: 'Quest for the Essence of Language' in Diogenes 51, 1965.

In this often cited paper, Jakobson draws on Charles S. Peirce's semiotic philosophy to examine the non-arbitrary nature of some linguistic encodings in various languages.


Live By. University of Chicago Press, 1980 (see Text 6).

This extremely accessible book argues that metaphors are a part of everyday speech that affects the ways in which we perceive, think, and act. Reality itself is defined by metaphor, and as metaphors vary from culture to culture, so do the realities they define.

c.k. Ogden and i.a.Richards: The Meaning of Meaning.

Harcourt, Brace and World 192.3.

This book explores the influence of language on thought through a theory of signs. It includes a well-known supplementary essay by B. Malinowski on 'The problem of meaning in primitive languages' (see Text 8).

v.n. Volosinov: Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. (Tr. L. Matejka and I.R. Titunik). Seminar Press 1973 [1929].

This important book deals with language as a system of signs, and with the laws that govern systems of signs within human society and culture. It offers a coherent philosophy for conceiving of the relationship of language, ideology, and human interaction.

Anna Wierzbicka: Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Oxford University Press 1992 (see Text 7).

This book, written in simple, non-technical language, contains a wealth of examples to show that the lexicons of different languages suggest different conceptual universes and culture-specific meanings.

Chapter 3 Meaning as action

Ernst Cassirer: Language and Myth. (Tr. Susanne Langer). Dover 1945.

This is an intellectually stimulating classic, that explores the place of language and myth in the pattern of human culture, the nature of word magic, and the relationship of culture and religion.

Clifford Geertz: The Interpretation of Cultures. Basic Books 1973 [see Text 10).

This collection of essays on culture as a symbolic system is a must. Particularly important are Chapters i on thick description, 4 and 8 on religion and ideology as cultural systems, and the last chapter, 'Deep play: Notes on the Balinese cockfight'.

John j. Gumperz: Discourse Strategies. Cambridge University Press 1982.

This book develops a theory of conversational inference which shows how individuals of different social and ethnic backgrounds communicate with one another.

William F. hanks: Language and Communicative

Practices. Westview Press 1996.

This book offers new insights into the dynamics of context, the indeterminacy of cultural forms, and the relation between human experience and the making of meaning. Chapters 2 and 3 deal with signs and meanings, Chapter 8 with linguistic relativity and mediation.

Bronislaw Malinowski: Coral Gardens and Their Magic. Dover 1978 [American Book Company 1935] {see Texts 8 and 9).

Volume II contains an eminently readable ethnographic theory of language based on the anthropologist's observations of the Trobriand Islanders in the South Pacific.

Chapter 4 Spoken language, oral culture

Penelope Band Stephen c. Levinson: Politeness.

Cambridge University Press 1978 (see Text 13).

This influential but rather technical book describes how different cultures achieve the facework necessary to sustain polite behavior, and proposes a model of politeness for analyzing the quality of social relations in any society.

Erving Goffman: Forms of Talk. University of Pennsylvania Press 1981 (see Text 12).

Of all of Goffman's books, this is the one that makes most explicit the link between talk and the total physical, social, cultural, and verbal environment in which it occurs.

Deborah Tannen: Conversational Style. Ablex 1984.

A well-known analysis of talk at a Thanksgiving dinner among friends from different US-American cultures.

Deborah Tannen (Ed.): Spoken and Written Language. Exploring Orality and Literacy. Vol. IX in the Series 'Advances in Discourse Processes', edited by Roy 0. Freedle. Ablex 1982.

This collection of papers examines oral and literate traditions in various cultures and in various discourse genres.

Shirley Brice heath: Ways with Words. Cambridge

University Press 1983 (see Text 14).

A stimulating and accessible study of children learning to use language at home and school in three communities in the United States: 'Roadville', a White working-class community, 'Track-ton', a Black working-class community, and 'Maintown', the mainstream Black and White townspeople who hold power in the schools and workplaces of the region.

Chapter 5 Print Language, Literate Culture

Benedict Anderson: Imagined Communities. Verso 1983 {see Text 19)

This influential book explores the interaction of capitalism, nationalism, and print, and the development of vernacular languages of nation-states.

Norman Gairclough: Discourse and Social Change.

Polity Press 1992.

This book, representative of Critical Discourse Analysis, brings together text analysis, the analysis of processes of text production and interpretation, and the social analysis of discourse events.

James gee: Social Lingwstics and Literacies. Falmer Press 1996 (see Text 17).

This book offers an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of literacy, discourse, and language in educational settings with special reference to cross-cultural diversity.

Walter j. Ong: Orality and Literacy. Methuen 1982 (see Text 15).

This classic explores some of the changes in our thought processes, personality, and social structures which, the author claims, are the result of the development of speech, writing, and print.

Brian v. Street (Ed.): Cross-Cultural Approaches to Literacy. Cambridge University Press 1993.

The papers in this book investigate the meanings and uses of literacy in different cultures and societies.

John M. Swales: Genre Analysis. Cambridge University Press 1990.

Parts l and n define key concepts of genre and discourse community.

Geoffrey Williams and pllo AlYA Hasan: Literacy in Society. Longman 1996. This collection of articles takes a critical sociocultural approach to literacy and addresses issues of power, ideology, and politics associated with the technology of writing.

Chapter 6 Language and Cultural Identity

Gloriaan/.ai.dua: Borderland/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. Spinsters/Aunt Lute 1987.

This book offers the feminist perspective of women of color on the construction of cultural difference through writing.

Homi k. Bhabha: Thc Location of Culture.

Routledge 1994.

In a series of interdisciplinary essays, the author redefines culture within a discourse framework and from a postcolonial perspective.

Michel de Certeau: The Practice of Everyday Life. University of California Press 1984.

This interdisciplinary book looks at the way ordinary language can subvert the traditional meaning-making order of dominant cultures.


Writing Culture. University of California Press 1986.

These important essays, drawing from historical, literary, anthropological, political, and philosophical sources, examine the problems created by the representation of culture through writing.

Braj B. Kachru (Ed.): The Other Tongue. English across Cultures (znd edu.) University of Illinois Press 1992.

This collection of papers examines the spread of English around the world from the point of view of linguistic variation. It deals with issues of intelligibility, nativization, contact and change, and suggests a pedagogy of 'World Englishes'.

Robin Tolmach Lakoff: Talking Power. Basic Books 1990.

This book examines the politics of language and the way in which talk shapes and perpetuates power relationships within and across cultures, and gender cultures in particular.

R.B. LE PAGE and ANDRE TABOURET-KELLER: Acts of Identity. Cambridge University Press 1985 (see Text zo).

This extremely richly documented book uses language variation in West-Indian communities and in Britain to examine how language use plays out ethnic and other cultural identities.

Alastair PENNYCOOK:T^e Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. Longman 1994 (see Text 22).

This book examines the spread of English around the world from the point of view of colonial and post-colonial, global politics. It deals with issues of power, nationalism and disciplinary politics, and suggests a critical pedagogy for teaching English as a 'worldly' language.

Chapter 7 Current Issues

Claire kramsch: Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press 1993.

Drawing on insights from discourse analysis and cultural studies, this book represents an attempt to reconceptualize the study of spoken and written language as cultural study. It suggests a pedagogy of the intersubjective, intertextual, and intercultural in language teaching.


Intercultural Communication - A Discourse Approach. Blackwell 1995.

This book focuses on the discourse of Asians and Westerners, of men and women, of corporate executives and professionals, and the discourse bridging generational cultures.

Charles Taylor: Multiculturalism (Ed. and introduced by Amy Gutmann). Princeton University Press 1994 (see Text 24).

In this sophisticated book, an initial essay by Charles Taylor on the politics of recognition is commented upon, and responded to, by several scholars including Jurgen Habermas and Anthony Appiah.

DENNIS TEDLOCK and BRUCE MANNHEIM (Eds): The Dialogic Emergence of Culture. University of Illinois Press 1995.

This collection of papers by anthropologists reformulate the idea of culture as continuously created and re-created in dialogs.



SECTION 4 Glossary



acculturation: The process of internalizing the culture of a discourse community. See socialization. [6]

act of identity: Way in which speakers display their cultural stance toward their membership in a specific culture (2), and toward the culture of others through their use of language. [70]

appropriateness: Characteristic of linguistic and social practices that meet the expectations of native speakers within their given culture; cf. appropriation. [80]

appropriation: Process by which members of one discourse community make the language and the culture of another their own. [81]

arbitrariness: The random nature of the fit between a linguistic sign and the object that it refers to, for example, the word 'rose' does not look like a rose. [16]

asymmetricality: The lack of a perfect fit between a sign and its referent, between signifier and signified, for example, the sign 'rose' always means more than a flower of a certain shape and smell. [16]

barbarism: Violation of the standard language by not fully competent speakers of the language (from Greek barbaros: outsider) [75]

code: Formal system of communication. [3,17]

code-switching: Verbal strategy by which bilingual or bidialectal speakers change linguistic code within the same speech event as a sign of cultural solidarity or distance, and as an act of (cultural) Identity. See language crossing. [43]

coherence The meaning created in the minds of speakers/readers by the situated inferences they make based on the words they hear/read; cf. cohesion. [28]

cohesion: The semantic ties between units of language in a text; cf. coherence. [19]

cohesive device: Linguistic element like a pronoun, demonstrative, conjunction, that encodes semantic continuity across a stretch of text. [19]

connotation: The associations evoked by a word in the mind of the hearer/reader; cf. denotation. See semantic networks. [16,23]

context of culture: The historical knowledge, the beliefs, attitudes, values shared by members of a discourse community, and that contribute to the meaning of their verbal exchanges. [26]

context of situation: The immediate physical, spatial, temporal, social environment in which verbal exchanges take place. [26]

context-dependent: Characteristic of oral exchanges which depend very much for their meaning on the context of situationand the context of culture of the participants. [40]

context-reduced: Characteristic of essay-type writing. Because readers are far removed in time and space from the author, the text itself must be able to make meaning without access to its original context of production; cf. context-dependent. [40]

contextualization cues: A term coined by anthropologist John Gumperz to indicate the verbal, paraverbal and non-verbal signs that help speakers understand the full meaning of their interlocutors' utterances in context. [27]

conversational style: A person's way of talking in the management of conversations. See discourse accent. [47]

cooperative principle: A term coined by the philosopher Paul Grice to characterize the basic expectation that participants in informational exchanges will cooperate with one another by contributing appropriately and in a timely manner to the conversation. [31]

co-text: The linguistic environment in which a word is used within a text. [19]

cultural identity: Bureaucratically or self-ascribed membership in a specific culture(2). [66]

cultural literacy: Term coined by literary scholar E.D. Hirsch to refer to the body of knowledge that is presumably shared by all members of a given culture. [18]

culture 1: Membership in a discourse community that shares a common social space and history, and a common system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, and acting. 2 The discourse community itself. 3 The system of standards itself. [4]

deictic: Element of speech that points in a certain direction as viewed from the perspective of the speaker, for example, here, there, today, coming, going. See deixis; index; social deixis. [41]

deixis; Process by which language indexes the physical, temporal, and social location of the speaker at the moment of utterance. See Index; social deixis. [41]

denotation: The basic conceptual meaning of a word See connotation. [16,23]

dialogic: Based on dialog. [40]

diffusion: Anthropological concept that refers to the process by which stereotypes are formed by extending the characteristic of one person or group of persons to all, for example, all Americans are individualists, all Chinese are collectivists. See focusing. [68]

Discourse: This term, with a capital D, coined by linguist James Gee, refers to ways of speaking, reading and writing, but also of behaving, interacting, thinking, valuing, that are characteristic of specific discourse communities. See culture. [61]

discourse: The process of language use, whether it be spoken, written or printed, that includes writers, texts, and readers within a sociocultural context of meaning production and reception; cf. text. [57]

discourse accent: A speaking or writing style that bears the mark of a discourse community's ways of using language. See conversational style. [7]

discourse community: A social group that has a broadly agreed set of common public goals and purposes in its use of spoken and written language; cf. speech community. [6,17]

encoding: The translation of experience into a sign or code. [15]

face: A person's social need to both belong to a group and be independent of that group. [46]

facework: The social strategies required to protect people's face. [46]

focusing: Anthropological concept referring to the process by which stereotypes are formed by selectively focusing on certain classificatory concepts prevalent within a certain discourse community, for example, individualism vs. collectivism. See diffusion. [67]

footing: A term coined by sociologist Erving Goffman to denote the stance we take up to the others present in the way we manage the production or reception of utterances. [42]

frame: Culturally determined behavioral prototype that enables us to interpret each other's instances of verbal and non-verbal behavior. See schema; structures of expectation. [27]

genre: A socially-sanctioned type of communicative event, either spoken, like an interview, or printed, like a novel. [62]

Great Divide: Theory advanced by humanist Eric Havelock according to which the invention of writing created an irreducible difference between oral and literate cultures, and their ways of thinking. [56]

hegemony: A term coined by Antonio Gramsci to refer to the predominant organizational form of power and domination across the economic, political, cultural and ideological do-mains of a society, or across societies. [9]

iconic: A meaning of words based on resemblance of words to reality, for example, onomatopoeia ('bash', 'mash', 'smash', 'crash', 'dash'). [16, 23]

index 1: To index is to point to the presence of some entity in the immediate situation at hand. 2 An index is a linguistic form that performs this function. See deictic. [41]

intercultural 1: Refers to the meeting between people from different cultures and languages across the political boundaries of nation-states. 2 Refers to communication between people from different ethnic, social, gendered cultures within the boundaries of the same nation. See multicultural. [81]

language crossing: The switch from one language code or variety to another, or stylization of one variety, or creation of hybrid varieties of the same code, as an act of identity or resistance. See code-switching. [70]

linguicism: Term coined by Robert Phillipson to refer to discrimination and prejudice on the grounds of language, analogous to racism, sexism. [76]

linguistic imperialism: Worldwide expansion of one language at the expense of others. [76]

linguistic nationism: Association of one language variety (standard or national language) with membership of one national community. [72]

linguistic relativity principle: A hypothesis advanced by the linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, according to which different languages offer different ways of perceiving and expressing the world around us, thus leading their speakers to conceive of the world in different ways. [11]

linguistic rights: A concept promulgated by the UN and other international organizations to defend the right of peoples to develop and promote their own languages, in particular the right of children to have access to education in their languages; cf. linguistic imperialism. [76]

literacy: The cognitive and sociocultural ability to use the written or print medium according to the norms of interaction and interpretation of a given discourse community. [37]

literacy event: Interaction of a reader or community of readers with a written text. See discourse. [60]

literate: Characteristic of the use of written language. See literacy. [37]

metaphor: Not only a device of the poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish, metaphor is a property of our conceptual system, a way of using language that structures how we perceive things, how we think, and what we do. [20]

multicultural: Political term used to characterize a society com-posed of people from different cultures or an individual who belongs to several cultures. See intercultural(2). [82]

narrative style: A person's way of telling stories that reflects the uses of language of the discourse community he/she has been socialized into. Seeconversational style; discourse accent. [50]

native speaker: A person who is recognized, linguistically and culturally, by members of a discourse community as being one of them. [79]

orality: Features of discourse associated with the use of spoken language; cf. literacy. [37]

orate: Characteristic of either spoken or written language that bears traces of orality; cf. literate. [37]

orientalism: Term coined by Edward Said to denote the colonialist perspective taken by European writers on the Orient, and by extension, a colonialist view of any foreign culture. [9]

people-centered: Characteristic of conversational exchanges where participants have to engage their listeners, not just convey information; cf. topic-centered. [39]

phatic communion: Term coined by anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski to characterize the ready-made chunks of speech like 'Hi, how are you?' that people use more to maintain social contact than to convey information. [38]

politics of recognition: The political debates surrounding the right of minorities to be legitimately recognized and accepted as members of a culture (2) that is different from the dominant culture. See legitimation. [124]

pragmatics: The study of what speakers mean with words, as distinct from what the code means. [15]

print culture: The artifacts, mindsets, and social practices associated with the production and reception of printed language; cf. orality; literacy. [54]

prior text: One or several texts which a given text explicitly cites, refers to, or builds upon, or which it implicitly harks back to, evokes, or in some way incorporates. [19, 61]

referent: Object that a signifier (sound or word) points to, for example, a flower of a certain shape and smell is the referent for the word 'rose'. [16]

representation: The way a culture (2) expresses itself, or is expressed by others, through linguistic, visual, artistic, and non-artistic means. [9]

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: The linguistic relativity hypothesis advanced by linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf. See linguistic relativity principle. [11]

schema (plural schemata): Mental representation of typical in-stance used in discourse processing to predict and make sense of the particular instance which the discourse describes. See structures of expectation; frame. [27]

semantic networks: Associations of related meanings evoked by words. [17]

semantics: The study of how meaning is encoded in language, as distinct from what speakers mean to say when they use language. [15]

sign: The relation between a signifier (word or sound) and a signified (image or concept). [3, 15] situated inferences: Mental links made by participants in verbal exchanges between the words spoken and the relevant context of situation and context of culture. [27]

social deixis: Process by which language indexes (l) not only the physical and temporal location of the speaker at the moment of speaking, but also his/her social status and the status given to the addressee. See deixis. [41]

socialization: The process by which a person internalizes the conventions of behavior imposed by a society or social group. See acculturation. [6]

sociocultural context: The synchronic (social, societal) and the diachronic (historical) context of language use, also called sociohistorical context. [8]

speech community: A social group that shares knowledge of one linguistic code and knowledge also of its patterns of use; cf. discourse community. [5, 17]

standard language: Artificially conventionalized linguistic code, fashioned from a multiplicity of dialects spoken within a national community, and imposed as the national code. See linguistic nationism. [74]

stereotype: Conventionalized ways of talking and thinking about other people and cultures. See symbol. [22]

structures of expectation: Mental structures of knowledge that enable us to understand present events and anticipate future ones. See frame; schema. [27]

symbol: Conventionalized sign that has been endowed with special meaning by the members of a given culture. [22]

technology of the word: This phrase, coined by the humanist Walter Ong, refers to the written or print medium. [5]

text: The product of language use, whether it be a conversational exchange, or a stretch of written prose, held together by cohesive devices; cf. discourse. [57]

topic-centered: Characteristic of essay-type writing, where the transmission of a message is of prime importance; cf. people-centered. [39]


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