HOW COMPUTER VIRUSES WORK
I. Read the text. Translate it into Russian. Put 7 questions of different types to it. Write out
A) verbs in passive, b) modal verbs with the meaningful verbs.
HOW COMPUTER VIRUSES WORK
Computer virus is a program which is designed to copy itself into other programs, with the intention of causing mischief or damage. A virus will usually execute when it is loaded into a computer's memory.
A properly engineered virus can have a devastating effect, disrupting productivity and doing billions of dollars in damages. For example, experts estimate that the Mydoom worm infected approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day in January 2004. Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus forced Microsoft and some other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. In January 2007, a worm called Storm appeared - by October, experts believed up to 50 million computers were infected.
The most common forms of electronic infection are:
· Viruses: A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs, too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.
· E-mail viruses: An e-mail virus travels as an attachment to e-mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book.
· Trojan horses: A Trojan horseis a computer program which claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk).
· Worms: A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole, and then starts replicating from there, as well.
II. Read and translate the sentences from English into Russian. Define the tense forms, voice of the underlined verbs. Write 5 questions of all basic types to the highlighted sentence. - Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите видовременную форму и залог выделенных глаголов. Поставьте 5 вопросов всех основных типов к выделенному предложению.
Model: When trade began to develop widely advertising was oral. – Когда торговля начала широко развиваться, реклама была устной.
began – Past Simple, Active Voice
was – Past simple, Active Voice
1. If you leave me details of the services you are offeringI'll get back to you if we're interested.
2. The company usually gives us business class tickets, but this time they have bought economy tickets for this trip because there are so many of us going.
3. If you don't mind waiting for a few minutes my colleague will be happy to speak to you as soon as he is free.
4. The project will be finished by February 2013.
5. When I entered the office most people were working at their desks.
6. The first IBM PC went on sale in 1981 and set a world-wide standard for IBM-compatibility.
III. Complete the sentences below using the following verbs in the passive. Translate the sentences:
(Model: The printers ……… three weeks late. (deliver)
The printers were delivered three weeks late.
Принтеры доставили на три недели позже.)
1. The information............. by the computer. (process)
2. The machine.............. by a small electric motor. (power)
3. A month ago a network of service centres …………….. to take care of installation and maintenance. (introduce)
4. The machine.............. for measuring levels of static electricity. (use)
5. The plans for the new aircraft …………….. by a competitor. (steal)
6. The problems with the hard disk ….. by a faulty connection. (cause)
7. The first PCs …. in the middle of 20th century. (invent)
IV. Read and translate the sentences from English into Russian paying attention to the meaning of modal verbs. Underline the modal verbs.- прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значение модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы.
1. I can't find the information I need in the manual.
2. Nothing happens when I move the mouse. - You'll have to turn the computer off, and re-boot.
3. You should remember to save changes.
4. He had to delete some files as they were infected by a virus.
5. You ought to have come to the meeting. It was interesting.
6. May I use your computer while you are away?
V. In this passage about the use of computers in business you must fill each blank with one word. Choose each word from the following list. You must use each word once only.- прочитайте текст, заполните пробелы словами из таблицы.
Computers are being used more and more in business because they are fast, efficient and 1………… .
Here are some ways in which computers are used:
Insurance companies use them to store and 2 ………… details of clients' policies.
Production departments in companies use them to ensure they have adequate
3 ………… of raw materials and 4………….. .
Banks use them for processing details of accounts and 5 ……………….. .
Personnel departments use them to keep 6 …………… of a company's employees.
Can you think of any other ways in which computers are used?
The most common ways in which you can 7 …………… information into a computer are:
- by typing it on a 8.........
- from a 9.............. disk
- by 10............. over a telephone link.
- from another computer 11...... to yours.
A computer can 12.......... information:
- on a 13............ called a VDU (visual display unit),
- to a 14............ which may use 15....... ……. sheets or 16 ……… stationery,
- to a floppy disk,
-to another computer.
VI. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may have to change some words slightly. – заполните пробелы подходящими по смыслу словами, добавляя нужные окончания, если необходимо.
1. applying, applicant, application, applicable
a) We have interviewed five ________________ for the new position.
b) The last part of the form is not __________ to foreign students.
2. corrected, correctly, corrective, correctness
a) If an error occurs, it is important to take ____________ action immediately.
b) The 'spell check' facility checks the __________ of your spelling.
3. instruction, instruct, instructed, instructor
a) Our maths __________ explained to us the principles of binary arithmetic.
b) We were _____________ to document our programs very carefully.
4. compute, computerized, computerization
a) The_________ of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the short term, but cost-effective in the long term.
b) We should be able to ______________ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the new program.
5. impression, impressive, unimpressed
a) It's important to create a good __________ when meeting clients.
b) The results from our new French subsidiary are very ___________ .