Cultivation and sale of lettuce "Iceberg" on the land and in greenhouses
“Iceberg” lettuce looks very similar to cabbage, so buying it at the supermarket self-service department, many of them are often confused. But the taste is very similar to lettuce, but a very pleasant crunch, which is quite peculiar to the latter. Useful properties of lettuce "Iceberg" found their application in cooking, where it occupies a place of honor among the main ingredients of different salads. Salad is desirable to use raw, since heat treatment almost all vegetables lose more than 60% of their inherent beneficial properties. In fact, according to your taste salad "Iceberg" relatively neutral, so it goes well with any ingredients. You can cut it into cubes, strips or just decomposed leaf halves. Smoked meat, poultry, pork, boiled eggs with this salad as a result form a wonderful and nutritious meals. Due to the fact that the leaves of lettuce from a fairly thick and crispy, in cooking and is often used as a mini-plateaus supply of salads and cold appetizers. Salad "Iceberg" for a long time can be stored in the refrigerator, because it is the only one of all kinds of lettuce, which is absolutely not afraid of the cold. Low calorie salad "Iceberg" (15 kcal per 100 grams of green) indicates that it is perfect for fasting days.Use salad "Iceberg" In any of the varieties of lettuce contains a huge amount of nutrients. Use salad "Iceberg" and there is no doubt, because it is rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber. Incidentally, the bitter taste lettuce gives substance called alkaloid lactucin. With regular use of salad "Iceberg" is improving the blood is regulated by the body's metabolism, thus it is more likely to lose weight. Useful properties of lettuce "Iceberg" caused no small amount of folic acid, which is necessary to strengthen the nervous system, helps with stress, depression and emotional disorders. Use salad "Iceberg" is revealed in the beneficial effects on the nervous system, so doctors recommend its use for insomnia. Salad "Iceberg" indispensable food rich in minerals and vitamins. Value is determined by the salad contained therein biostimulants, mineral and spicy substances (hormones, vitamins, enzymes, organic acids). Salad vegetable growing is a new and important branch of agriculture. It is intended to meet the needs of the population in the diet of fresh products throughout the year. Growing lettuce varieties, or rather "Iceberg" in the open and protected ground is now very profitable and promising business. Salad "Iseberg", which in the first phase we are going to grow, currently in great demand in both domestic market and abroad. Working in the industry c intermittently for over 7 years, I have gained more than adept at growing different varieties of lettuce. The company where I started to develop the technology cultivation of salads, was established in 2002 in Baku and Absheron region, it still is the official supplier of fresh lettuce varieties of fast food restaurants as "McDonald's," KFC "," Papa Jhons ", "SKY Catering" etc. On the territory of this enterprise functioned side by side in the shop for processing vegetables (washing, cutting, packing and delivery to customers) and its subsidiaries, the responsibilities that go work on the cultivation of varieties of lettuce. His career in this company I started the site foreman, and then I was appointed director of the subsidiary, which I combined with the duties of an agronomist and at the same time was the technical director of the above company. I am responsible for the smooth operation of technical facilities management for timely provision of plant water, gas, electricity and so on.. But my most basic job is that advance I could accurately predict the number of planted seeds, the order of these seeds from Holland, sowing Seed special plan, that person was, I was responsible for the temperature regime during the finding seeds sown in a special chamber, then in a month for watering mineral fertilizer seedlings in the nursery for transplanting seedlings in the greenhouse, with the timely fertilizing and pest control in the growing season, and finally the collection of high-quality crops and their transfer to the shop. All this work I was doing with his brigade, which numbered just 4 employees. Because of the labor shortage, I most of the time spent working on the field, and by the evening sit down at the computer and draw up reports on the daily work performed. While working in this company I managed, albeit virtually, to enter the Russian market, specifically to the company "White Dacha", which in turn is the official supplier of "McDonald's" and on the territory of Russia and Belarus. They offered us that we here at Azerbaijan organized a large-scale cultivation of lettuce "Iceberg" in the future resale harvest them. Monthly demand for this sort of salad, they told us to 200 tons. Since the financial capacity of the organization, where I previously worked, very limited, this proposal my former management reacted very skeptical. But after leaving that organization as a professional and experienced growing varieties of lettuce, I decided to review some of the proposed options before me and wrote another letter to the company "Belaya Dacha" In response, they once again assured me that they are very interested in this project and although it comes from Azerbaijan from different farms offer of cooperation, they have to these proposals seriously are and prefer to work with those organizations that have the ability to organize the growing of lettuce under the guidance of an experienced professional who would be able to clearly organize the growing salad on schedule to have the material and technical base, to harvest can be collected on a monthly basis as from of open fields and greenhouses with, have refrigerators, as agreed to organize a fresh crop harvested in Moscow. The new company, which I recommend to create, call it eg Ltd. "A-Iseberg", will be engaged in the initial stage, only growing lettuce "Iceberg." For the implementation of the project must first nursery (18.0 x 50.0 x 4.5) with modern cooling and preheating devices to the inside temperature has always been a hotbed of +12 +16 ° C. In this nursery, I at 1 meter from the ground, around the greenhouses, I built special shelves available tools (for example, from unnecessary pallet). In the second stage, we need to be in the location of 55 greenhouses, each with an area of approximately 900 m² (18.0 x 50.0 x 4.5), which is planned to be constructed on 5 acres of land area. (author's note: 55h900 m² = 5 acres). Capacity of each greenhouse (useful area is taken into account) would be approximately at 5,250 units. sprouts salad "Iceberg". In order to fully cover all 55 greenhouses seedlings, seedlings need to 288.000 units (note: 55h5.250 = 288.750). And in order to obtain timely and phased These 288,000 pieces of high-quality seedlings, it is necessary also in stages (each week for 40.000 pcs.), 320.000 units sow seeds of lettuce "Iceberg" for 7-8 weeks. There certainly need to accurately determine in advance the capacity of a special chamber, where for 3-4 days will be held cassette seeds in strict temperature range +16 to + 18 ° C with a humidity of at least 95% and in the dark. After the appearance of the first shoots - immediate need to make all the tapes in a prepared nursery and to lay them on specially prepared shelves. Here, too, will have to take into account the pre-nursery capacity. For the next 30-40 days the seedlings are fed with chemical fertilizers, until will not be ready for transplanting in greenhouses. Given the predicted risks of loss of 10% of the total amount of seeds that were within 30-40 in the nursery (320.000-10% = 288.000 pcs.) These 288,000 units seedlings, also in stages, in turn will change the ground. In the following growing season begins, during which the seedlings in a timely manner and in a dose fed with chemical fertilizers. This period, depending on the external and internal environment varies between 100 and 120 days. Before the beginning of the harvest is also forecast to about 20% loss of the total number of seedlings (288.000-20% = 230.000 pcs.). The amount collected salads projected somewhere 230.000 units. The weight of a high-quality lettuce "Iceberg", depending on the season, ranging between 0,350 m and 0,450 m. Harvest from 5 hectares will be approximately 92 tons (230.000h0.400gr = 92.000kg). Taking into account losses during storage, transportation and sale is expected to realize 85.000 kg of lettuce "Iceberg" at the price of an average of 3,00 azn. 1 kg (85.000h3.00 azn = 255.000). In the early spring and mid-June, "Iceberg" can grow open ground in late autumn and winter, the risk of frost, suitable cultivation in greenhouses with minimal heating, and then only at night. Also in the summer need a transition to a greenhouse with artificial cooling to the temperature inside the greenhouse has risen by more than 18-20 degrees. In winter, you can also grow open ground, but on one condition, that night all the seedlings should definitely be covered with film material .but here because the temperature drop may be risks of loss.
The main objectives of the company for the investment period are only growing lettuce "iceberg" for resale company "Belaya Dacha", and then strengthening and expanding segment of the domestic market on the basis of agreements with restaurants, cafes, shops, processors; strengthening of sales channels; ensuring the profits from the production and sale of lettuce, enough for the expansion and development of production. At the second stage it is planned to occupy 70% of the domestic market due to the transition to growing other varieties of lettuce, for example: ”Kos-Romen”,”Batavia”,”LollaRossa”,”Rukola”,”Brokkoli”,”Frisse”,”Mangold”,”Kress- Salad "," Corn Salad ", tomatoes" Cherry ", as well as the usual tomatoes and cucumbers. The experience of growing these varieties of lettuce I have more than enough, and if necessary have the opportunity to invite an experienced specialist during the cultivation of tomatoes and cucumbers. The costs will be repaid over approximately 2 years. The aim of the business plan is an estimate of the expected financial performance of the business and profitability of the project justification. The objectives of the business plan is to identify the conditions of the market and sales forecast for the finished product, the calculation of the required resources, the assessment of possible risks. 2) Market research
To create a new enterprise is very important to analyze the current state of the market, because it is the state of the market, market conditions determine the functioning of production, profitability and return on the project. After all, profit is the main goal of any business. We conducted a study of the market varieties of lettuce and found that in high demand at the moment are not just a salad "Iceberg", but other varieties of lettuce, as well as some varieties of tomatoes and cucumbers. For example tomatoes "Cherry" is currently in great demand in the market and its large-scale cultivation engaged LLC "Green Tech" Baku, which in turn is founded on the basis of "Azersun". This hothouse small batches growing and some varieties of lettuce in hydroponics, but the domestic market for the implementation of the salads they are not very interested in. Their main activity consists in the cultivation of tomato and cucumber. On the outskirts of Baku, some small greenhouse farming part is sometimes cultivated varieties of salad and they have their customers. But the salad plant perishable, and these farmers there is no refrigeration chambers. They can agree to them the entire harvest sold us, a, we turn with his crop could they resell "White Dacha." In some regions of Azerbaijan I am familiar with the farmers who want to grow "Iceberg" but because of the absence of a market, they are not at risk. I am for every possible way to help these farmers, even if they begin to grow "Iceberg" under our supervision, we conclude a contract with them, and this farmer entire crop to sell to us, because we are cold stores and will be able to store the harvest for a week. The main competitor in the domestic market, of course, will be of "AAgro", which has long been engaged in a salad business. But the soil in the greenhouses there is no longer suitable for large-scale cultivation of "Iceberg" and useful area of these greenhouses do not exceed even 1 hectare. Yes, they are currently buying the main varieties of salad from abroad and are kept afloat, and now with this method provides its customers merchandise. But this step is equivalent to the "Harakiri", as at any moment any force majeure situation, and not having his farm, remain nothing more. I think that we can agree with them, that they bought only in our salads. It should be noted that imported products have beautiful appearance and a wide enough market. However, there are negative features: the high price is not always good taste and environmentally unfriendly products. Our company aims to reduce costs through the use of high-yielding, early maturing varieties, the introduction of intensive technologies, which will reduce the cost of implementation. We plan to use biological methods of plant protection against diseases and pests instead of using poisonous chemicals, so the manufactured products will clean and safe. Also, salads should be fresh, t. E. Produced and implemented as soon as possible, it required to conclude contracts with processors and other enterprises. Transportation to the processing will be carried out transportation of our company, to avoid any disruptions to supply .On assessment of consumers of our products, as well as the formation of the image is greatly influenced by the packaging. Salads be packed in containers with symbols of our company, in bright packages with the logo of the company. Improving the quality and competitiveness of products is an additional source of revenues, an important reserve for increasing the efficiency of production as a whole. Vegetables, and if specifically, the cultivation of salads - labor-intensive industries. On cultivation of vegetables 1 hectare consumed 600 - 800 ch/- hour, which is 35 - 45 times higher compared to the production of grain. The high labor intensity of vegetable production due to the deficient level of mechanization of production and a large amount of manual labor. Therefore it is necessary most rational use of human resources, which will reduce the cost. Relying on his experience, I work with a minimum of forces can carry out all the necessary work. Differences future of "A-Iceberg" competitors are: 1) the presence of the container, allowing for transport longer maintain the marketability of products; 2) well-kept, resistant to diseases and pests high-yielding early-maturing varieties; 3) The products will have a good taste;
4) environmentally friendly products; 5) the process of cultivation will engage experienced professionals who know the ins and outs of production and it has a lot of experience.
3) Justification of entrepreneurial ideas
Ltd. "A-Iceberg" will have the exclusive right to use its brand name.
The output range is carried out in full all year round, whatever the season. Production of greenhouse vegetables is not dependent on the whims of nature. Demand for the company's products has a slight seasonal variations.
In the future, the farm will be built modern greenhouses with the latest technological data, ventilation, cooling, heating, watering will be carried out automatically.
The company will apply the development of the world's best companies. These technologies include drip irrigation system and climate control. Drip irrigation system is designed to supply at a given time and in the required amount specified concentration of the nutrient solution into the root zone of each plant in the greenhouse of any size. It will be used by a wide range of automated mortar units for drip irrigation. All systems will be used modules: control microcontrollers, measurement sensors, ejector pumps for precise dosing of fertilizers and acids, and many other equipment, which allows maintaining high quality products to maintain low prices.
Irrigation systems unique opportunity to obtain high yields of vegetables in greenhouses.
The composition of the drip irrigation system:
1. Automated mortar unit.
2. Polyethylene tanks for storage of the mother liquors.
3. Pipelines PVC.
4. Vnutriteplichnye pipes made of polyethylene.
5. Droppers different types and performance.
6. Solenoid valves of various types.
Management is carried out by watering program set from the control microcomputer. This gives you the flexibility to program the amount of water and fertilizer, leaving the mortar unit, allowing optimally organize balanced nutrition of plants. Programming jobs irrigation has a friendly interface that requires no special knowledge and mastered in a few hours. Performance of the mortar site to drip irrigation - to 3 hectares. A node can daily produce 50 individually programmable irrigation, which set the parameters of the nutrient solution, on time and the required volume of solution for each valve. Each of the 50 irrigation, can be repeated up to 99 times per day. A computer-controlled dosing system allows the preparation of fertilizer fertilizing solutions with exactly consistent concentration of nutrients by continuous measurement and control of electrical conductivity (EC) and the level of acidity (pH) of the solution. The control unit allows you to automatically pre-programmed to change the concentration of the nutrient solution during the day and on different days. In addition, it calculates the daily average characteristics of the solution, its volume and time of watering through each valve and stores the data for six months for monitoring and analysis. The distribution network provides a uniform flow of solution to each plant by means of complex piping and droppers. The nutrient solution from the solution enters the main unit, UPVC pipe. Further, through the control valves and solenoid valves, controlled by computer, the solution enters the dispensing conduit laid on the edges of the greenhouse. The main pipeline is connected to the plastic gryadkovymi sleeves, which are mounted on the motherboard dropper. On the maternal droppers installed adapters, each of which is connected through a micro tube polyethylene dropper arrow capacity of 2 l / h, combined with peg to install at the root of the plant. The greenhouse effect causes a rapid rise in temperature inside the greenhouse or greenhouse facilities of incident light, which has a negative effect on the plant. The probability of spread of pests and diseases is also higher in unventilated greenhouse construction. All this necessitates regular ventilation of greenhouses and greenhouses for keeping them normal humidity level and temperature conditions. The need to define the winding thermometer and hygrometer, the presence of which is mandatory in each greenhouse. Fresh air inside a greenhouse or hothouse provide means arranged in the walls or roof vents, as well as through a doorway. In this area of the site through which the airing, must not exceed 20% of the total. In greenhouses having a large area, the vents provide for every 2 m or near continuous on both sides of the roof. The vents are installed in a greenhouse, are two kinds of conventional design. Window shutters, blinds will be installed in greenhouses, where it is planned to grow tomatoes. The main advantage of these vents is the ability to provide fresh air, without creating drafts. To make effective use of innovations requires highly workforce.
4) The production plan
Technology based greenhouse vegetable production: in the management of the regime of growing crops; on the use of highly productive conventional substrates, perfect system of protecting plants from pests and diseases; on the selection of high-yielding varieties and hybrids that provide obtaining high quality products. Class - leading link technology, but the potential of varieties may be revealed only with the consideration of its biological features in the process. We give a brief description of the main varieties of lettuce "Iceberg", which is planned to be grown in LLC "A-Iceberg". All these varieties are included in the State register of breeding achievements permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation, so the delivery of the crop to the "White Dacha" during execution of the required phytosanitary documents for customs issues will not occur:
"Argentinas" - standard variety in the segment of medium-large salad as possible at the moment resistance to downy mildew, and good quality head of cabbage for the fresh market and processing. To harvest throughout the season, heading out medium to large, flat-round, near-perfect form, so perfectly suited for automatic packaging Film sleeve (Flowpack), smooth outer and inner leaves, beautiful yellow interior painting and great layering leaves late bolting resistant to internal necrosis, thus guaranteed the quality of the harvest. "Argentinas" is recommended for planting in mid-March to mid-August.
High-yielding, reliable brand in the segment of medium-sized salad for production throughout the season, with the maximum possible at the moment resistance to downy mildew, head out from the compact to medium leaf little bubble, a brilliant green color, well-formed head with a loose inner structure, which retained to increase the size of head; reliability of obtaining the harvest due to a long period of harvest; easy to clean due to flat veins, high quality assurance through late bolting, resistance to vitreous and internal necrosis .Diamantinas recommended for planting in mid-March to mid-August.
Salad Saladin type with the size of head of medium-large to large, with an attractive round shape. For the fresh market, and particularly for processing, a head filled up slowly and maintains optimal cleaning layering leaves good resistance in the field, a long period of harvesting. Lagunas is recommended for planting in open ground from early April. "Santarinas"
Medium-sized salad for summer production in the open field.
a symmetric flat-rounded shape of head with a short internal stumps;
-Duration harvest period due to slow development and filling of head;
- Very high resistance to bolting in summer conditions;
- Well suited for packaging film and is of excellent quality for processing;
- Recommended for planting from mid-May to mid-July.
Seeds of firms plan to use "RijkZwaan" but also "EnzaZaden" a, which will be purchased in Baku at official dealers of these companies. Peat will use the brand "Pindsrup" oranj (Denmark) which have to be ordered from Latvia. Agro Perlite will order from Turkey. Cassettes will order seeds from Ukraine. But it is possible and the channels that these materials can be purchased in the local market. Fertilizers and pesticides are also planning to buy from authorized dealers such firms as "Yara", "Bayer", "Sungenta", etc.
5) Marketing Plan
A large proportion of the crop of "A-Iceberg" will be sold on the foreign market. And also planned to sign a number of contracts for the supply of vegetable products with processors that are on the territory of the country, which contributes to the rapid sales. Delivery of vegetables will be our own transport in order to avoid disruption of supplies, as perishable goods. It is planned to advertise in the media (newspapers, magazines, television, billboards). The most rapid and effective advertising, photo stickers is produced by our company salads on a vehicle that will deliver the goods to customers on a daily basis. It should be bright, sonorous, to attract attention. Also to be noted sustainability of our products. The goal of the campaign to expand the range of consumers. Our company is planning the following activities: exhibitions, fairs, tastings, distribution of leaflets. The main element of the strategy against competitors and to increase the purchase of products is the low price of the products by reducing the share of the profits.
Obstacles to the marketing of the goods:
* salad - perishable products.
* environmental friendliness;
To organize and conduct an advertising campaign is planned to allocate 3% of the profits.
In the future, a decision on the choice of the organizational structure will be taken by senior management of the organization. Middle and lower level management provide baseline information, and sometimes offer their own versions of the structure of their subordinate units. The best structure of the organization is considered to be a structure that optimally interact with the external and internal environment to meet the needs of the organization and more effectively achieve their goals. Lead LLC "A-Iceberg" th in the future will be General Manager. It will report to the Chief Director Chief Agronomist, Chief Economist, Chief Accountant, Technical Director, Chief of Staff, the head of security, Head of the garage, supplier - logistik, the foreman of the site. Each of the above is subject to a number of employees. In addition to these workers still need a cook, cleaner, electrician. The average salary of 250 - 450 azn depending on the position and qualifications of the employee. It is expected that salaries will be time-based, ie, according to the salary for the time actually worked. The main advantage for the employee at the time wage labor is that it has a guaranteed monthly income that does not depend on the volume of production and sales in a given period of time. In the future we plan to introduce a time-bonus wage system. But all of these solutions is planned for the future, as the initial stage, we plan to grow salad "Iceberg" on 5 hectares of land area, and only after the harvest from these lands, and send the goods to Russia, we will be able to accurately calculate all of your income and expenses. If cost-effectiveness and profitability of the first phase would be convincing, then you can see all the expense of large-scale plans for uninterrupted growing lettuce "Iceberg" in Russia and beyond.
To assess the likelihood of the production and use of commercial risks an expert method. We calculate the value at risk in the process of production and sales, and present the results in the table below:
For troubleshooting and fault systems in the enterprise will work and qualified personnel able to quickly remove them. Mechanics and technicians will systematically go through annual training from foreign experts.
Analysis of water and climatic conditions of the air in the area where it is planned to carry out the project are listed in the information at the end of the "Business Plan".