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The ocean basins are interconnected, so processes acting in the most remote basin eventually affect the entire ocean. For example, the warm, arid climate around the Mediterranean Sea causes its surface waters to evaporate at a greater rate than do most Atlantic waters and hence makes them somewhat salter. Warm, salty water from Mediterranean enters the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom of the Strait of Gibraltar and can be detected below the surface over a large part of the Atlantic before losing its identify by mixing with waters above and below.

The world ocean is changing very slowly with time. This permits oceanographers to use data taken as much as a hundred years ago to study open-ocean processes, because of the ocean’s great age and slow rate of change, seawater is generally well mixed. Bottom water in the deep ocean returns to the surface in 1000 to 2000 years, and the oceans have probably existed for 3 billion years. Thus we estimate that the ocean waters have been mixed more than a million times, and we should not be surprised to find that sea salts are nearly identical, regardless of where the seawater samples are collected. The apparently uniform chemical composition of the ocean may arise from its long history.

Ex.7 Make up 10 questions to the text.

Ex.8 Translate into Ukrainian:

(dry) land, on land, to reach land, to land a land-breeze, a land-locked sea;

an ocean of tears, ocean of time, the ocean bed, the ocean deeps, an ocean chart, an ocean monster, an ocean liner, an ocean-spanning rocket;

the average depth, the average temperature, the average salinity, the average amount of rainfall, on an average.


Ex.9 Define the grammatical tense of all the verbs in this text and translate it:

The ocean is an efficient absorber of incoming solar energy. Heating of the ocean surface occurs only during daylight hours and surface waters are warmest in the late afternoon. The amount of energy absorbed by the ocean depends in turn an latitude and time of year. More solar energy is absorbed when the sun is high in the sky and less when the sun is nearer the horizon. In the tropics and subtropics the sun is well above the horizon at all seasons. Near the poles the sun is never far above the horizon, so polar and sub polar regions receive much less insolation there.


Ex.10 Insert the proper prepositions:

1. She will be very angry...you. 2. He will leave...Monday. 3. We went ... a walk in the park. 4. She left a note... you. 5. We need more practice... conversation. 6. They played a trick... him. 7. Later they laughed... him. 8. This English book belongs... Willam.9.Alexander prefers to study... the morning. 10. He makes many mistakes ... spelling. 11. Don’t lock...me.


Ex.11 Render the following in Ukrainian:

The Baltic Sea is an intercontinental sea of 384,700 km lying between North and Central Europe. The average depth is about 65 meters. The greatest depth is 459 meters and the Gulf of Finland over 100m. As a result of the rotation of the earth, the water in the Baltic circulates counterclockwise. The Baltic Sea is the largest brackish water body in the world

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