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Can a machine be as intelligent as a person? A few years ago most people laughingly dismissed a such a possibility. Today it has to be taken seriously because scientists and engineers are indeed developing computers that can “think” in ways that humans do.

The field of computer science that is concerned with developing intelligent computers is known as artificial intelligence or AI for short. Researchers working in this field are trying to give computers the characteristics associated with intelligence in humans: the ability to inter, reason, solve problems, understand language, and so on. The AI field has already begun to bring about many important developments in computer technology.

The three principal areas of artificial intelligence that are being developed simultaneously are expert systems, robotics, and voice synthesis and recognition.


Lesson 20


Лексико-граматичні основи перекладу:Загальна перебудова речень.

Ex.1 Read and memorize the following words:

drainage – стік

inclined – похилий

ridge – підводне пасмо

confluence – злиття

outweigh – переважувати

glaciers – льодовик

submerge – затоплювати

artificial – штучний

fluctuation – коливання

tributary – притока


Ex.2 Read and translate the text:


Rivers and lakes are products of rainfall. In landlocked areas the rivers run to the lowest part of the drainage area and form a lake. A region of this kind is called an inland drainage area. The slope of the ground determines the way in which the water runs. It collects in the valley bottoms, which are called the thalweg, and moves along like a ball rolling down an inclined plane. The amount of rain that sinks into the earth dependents on the permeability of the soil, on the slope of the ground, and on the rate of rainfall.

The rivers in impermeable ground rise with great rapidity at first and then move slowly. They fall as rapidly as they rise. In permeable ground the rise and fall of rivers is always slow. The basin of a river is the tract of country which it drains. This is called the drainage area, the catchment basin, and the watershed. The boundaries separating drainage basins are called water partings or divides. These are from the sharp ridge of a mountain range to a slight roll in the plain imperceptible to the eye.

The vertical height of a river surface in feet above low water at a place is called the stage of the river. In some localities the channel depth is called the stage. As the water of a river moves, it is joined by water from other rivers; these latter rivers are called tributaries or affluents; the place of meeting with the main stream is the confluence. The slight inclination of a river surface, in the direction in which the water flows, is called the slope. The greater the volume of a river, usually, the less its slope. The velocity of water in a river is greater the greater its slope, the greater the area of its cross-section and the greater the depth of the water. The characteristics of a river as to its customary rise and fall, greatest and discharge of water, character of slope and area of cross section at different stages and in different parts of its course constitute its regimen.

The clearing of forests from land, the extension of cultivation, and the introduction of subsoil drainage, may have some effect on river regimen, tending to increase or diminish the highest water stages occurring during floods, but these are far outweighed by other circumstances.

A knowledge of the quantity of water passing in a river in a given time, or the river discharge, is needed in estimating the relative importance of streams in producing floods. The discharge is commonly given in feet per second passing. The discharge depends on the stage of water, being greater the higher the stage. The discharge in cubic feet in a second is equal to the area of the cross section of a stream in square feet multiplied by the velocity of current in feet per second.


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