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Determination of infiltration rates from the analysis hydrographs of runoff has the advantage that field data are used and thus quantitative results can be obtained for the watershed under study. Infiltrometers may be conveniently classified as either of two types: sprinkler or flooding. Both types require only a small, area of soil surface on which to conduct a test.

Flooding type.The flooding type infiltrometers normally consist of tubes or concentric rings which are driven into the groung to depths of 15-21 inches. These tubes are usually about 9 inches in diameter and 18 to 24 inches in length. Water is applied to the tube from graduated burettes and maintained at a constant head ( ¼ in ) over the soil surface. Readings of the water level in the burettes at successive time intervals permit direct determination of infiltration volumes and rates. Concentric-ring or double ring infiltrometers usually consist of an inner ring, 9 inches in diameter, surrounded by a 14-inch diameter outer ring. The ring are only forced into tire soil an amount necessary to prevent leakage under their edges. The water level is maintained at the same level within both rings but measurements of applied volumes and time are only taken on the inner ring. The outer ring serves only to reduce the boundary effects on the inner ring. The flooding type infiltrometers normally yield values of infiltration about twice those obtained for sprinkler type infiltrometers. This is because there is no dynamic actions of falling water drops.

Sprinkler type. There are many different models of sprinkler type infiltrometer but the most common types are designated type F and type FA. The type F infiltrometer utilizes a plot 6 feet wide by 12 feet in length while the FA type normally is used on plots only 1 ft X 2 1/2 ft in size. Each type contains two rows of –special nozzles mounted along each side of the plot. The nozzles used in both types are the same but the FA infiltrometer is operated at lower nozzle pressures than on the type F; hence the discharge and dynamic action of the water from the nozzles is reduced. The nozzles direct their spray upward and slightly inward to cover the plot and surrounding area with simulated, uniform rainfall. The water drops from the nozzle spray reach a height of 6-7 if above the plot surface; however this height is insufficient to permit the drops to reach their terminal velocity by the time they strike the ground. However, the dynamic action of the drops does approximate that of natural rainfall. The intensities of simulated rainfall which may be obtained with the nozzles is governed by the number of nozzles used. The actual intensity of rain provided by the nozzles is determined by placing a plastic or metal sheet over the plot and measuring the runoff from the plot. The “test” run commences when the plastic sheet is removed. Water is applied to the plot through the nozzles and runoff is measured continuously until the discharge rate from the plot becomes essentially constant. The nozzles are then shut off but thedischarge measurements are continued until there is no further runoff. As soon as all free water disappears from the plot the nozzles are turned on again and remain on until the discharge rate is once again-constant. They are then shut off but the measurements of discharge continue until runoff ceases.



Lesson 23


Вживання перфектних та тривалих часів.


Ex.9 Remember the rules about Simple, Continuous and Perfect Tenses. Use the Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Continuous, Past Continuous of the verbs in brackets:

1. We ( to have) a postcard from them two days ago. They ( to say ) they ( to have) a marvellous time. 2. While she ( to stop) this morning, she ( to lose) her money. She ( not to know ) how. 3. They ( to announce) our flight. We ( to have) a problem. One of our suitcases ( to miss). 4. Who ( to speak) there? – I ( not to know). 5. He (not to smoke ). He ( not to smoke ) now. When he ( to be ) at the office yesterday, he ( not to smoke), he ( to work) hard. 6. When my sister ( to wash ) her skirt, she ( to find) a pound note in the pocket. 7. When you ( to learn) German? 8. We ( to go ) home now because it ( to be ) late.9. Who you ( to wait ) for? 10. Her car ( to break) down yesterday while she ( to drive) to work. 11.When and where it ( to happen)? 12. She always ( to wear) nice clothes for work. Today she ( to wear) a nice blouse and a dark skirt. 13. What she ( to watch) at the moment?. 14. I ( to see) my friend in the street yesterday, but he ( to run ) for a bus and he ( not to have ) time to speak to me. 15. What your son ( to do )? – He ( to study ) computer science. 16. what you ( to do ) at the weekend? 17. When she ( to open ) the door, a man ( to stand ) on the doorstep. It ( to be ) her uncle, but she ( not to recognize ) him because he ( to wear ) dark glasses. 18. Last night we ( to go ) to a cafe to meet our friends.

Ex.10 Use the Past Simple, Present Perfect, Past Perfect of the verbs in the brackets and translate the sentences:

1. Since 1897 much ( to be learned) about the structure of atom. 2. After Becquerel ( to make )a great number of experiments, he discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity. 3. In 1898 the Curies ( to discover) a new substance which they ( to receive) during their experiments. They found that it ( to be ) much more active. 4. By the end of 1898 the Curies ( to obtain) the element radium. They announced that they ( to discover ) it in December 1898. 5. In 1969 people ( to mark ) the 100th anniversary of the discovery by Mendeleev of the periodic law of chemical elements. 6. After we ( to construct) a number of new power stations, our country will get cheap electric power. 7. In 1761 M. V. Lomonosov, with the aid of a telescope, ( to discover) a luminous rim around Venus. He explained that this phenomenon ( to be caused ) by the existence of an atmosphere around Venus.8. Observations showed that the luminous rim ( to be ) really the planet’s atmosphere lit up by the sun. It ( to be observed) in 1882, and will not be seen again until2004. 9. Man ( to achieve ) great successes in the field of studying the structure of new elementary particles.

Ex.11 Translate the following sentences into English using the corresponding Tenses:

1.Він був щасливий: він написав чудовий твір.2.Я шукаю тебе весь вечір. 3. Я раптом згадав, що нічого не їв з ранку. 4. На щастя, дощ уже перестав, коли ми вийшли. 5. Скільки років ви працюєте в цій школі? 6. Об одинадцятій годині ми вже працювали протягом трьох годин. 8. Я вже тричі говорив тобі, що треба переписати вправу. 9. Я вже цілу годину читав після обіду, коли прийшов тато. 10. Я не прийду. Я писатиму твір увесь вечір. 11. Де ти був з минулої п’ятниці? 12. Я вже два тижні живу у друзів. 13. Я вже два тижні жив у друзів, коли одержав листа. 14. Скільки днів ви вже читаєте цю книжку? 15. Лише коли вона була у поїзді, вона згадала, що залишила книжку вдома. 16. Вони живуть у цьому будинку вже п’ять років. 17. Моя сестра була хвора вже кілька днів, коли я дізнався про це. 18. Ти знав, що він не написав твір? 19. Ми не одержуємо від неї листів уже кілька місяців. 20. Скільки років ви вже працюєте на цьому заводі? 21. Він уже пішов, коли Олена ввімкнула радіо. 22. Я працюю над цією проблемою вже три місяці. 23.Ви повинні відпочити. Ви занадто багато працювали сьогодні.



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