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Application of Computers

At present a great deal of the work force of most coun­tries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research insti­tutes, plants. The use of computers in business, industry and communi­cation services is widespread today.

Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks.

They help in making different decisions and in management of economy. In business, computers are used for financial planning, accounting and specific calculations. The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current sta­tus of customer accounts.

Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and re­search.

For feather prediction macro computers are used to fully describe countless factors such as wind currents, solar effects and even planetary configuration must be calculated, correlated and simulated.

It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.

The computer has changed the production of copy in the newspaper industry. There are three steps involved in the process: input, correction, and output.

Railway companies use large computer systems to control ticket reservations and to give immediate information on the status of their trains. The computer system is connected by private telephone lines to terminals in major train stations, and ticket reservations for customers are made through these phone lines. Computers are used for a variety of other jobs including train schedules, planning, freight and cargo loading, meal planning, personnel availability, accounting and stock control.

More and more police departments are now using sophisticated devices to help control the increasing crime rate. Some of these devices are: firstly, a computer terminal inside a police vehicle to answer an officer’s questions, secondly, a computer-controlled display unit for displaying fingerprints, and thirdly, educational systems for police officers such as terminals, enabling them to verify changes in laws, rules, and regulations.

Almost every medium-sized or large company will use computers to help run the office. You will probably have to work with a computer in your day - to-day duties, so you will need to know something about computers and the way they are used. A computer really does make office life easier because it can so all sorts of different jobs. Computers are used to write letters and keep records of clients, suppliers and employees.

It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction per­forming the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.

At last air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends upon computer-generated informa­tion.

Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.

Vocabulary Notes

to engage in – бути залученим у щось

commonplace – банальний, звичайний, неоригінальний

widespread – розповсюджений, широко поширений

а research [rI'sq:tS]– дослідження

to improve – покращувати

to maintain records – вести облік

deposits[dI'pOzIts]and withdrawal [wiD'drL(q)l]– вклади та вилучення

an inquiry [In'kwaiqrI]– довідка, запит

guidance ['gaid(q)ns]– управління; керівництво

an environment [In'vaIqr(q)nmqnt]– середовище

freight[freIt]/ cargo ['kQ:gqu]– вантаж, вартість перевезення

sophisticated – мудрий

an employee ["emplOi'J]– робітник, службовець

to assign [q'saIn]– назначати, встановлювати

a society [sq'saiqtI]– суспільство

countless [kauntlIs] – багаточисленний, незчисленний

to verify ['verIfaI]– перевіряти, контролювати


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