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Give English equivalents of the following. Виконувати специфічні функції, три основних структури, за допомогою алгоритмів, порівняння та обчислення

Виконувати специфічні функції, три основних структури, за допомогою алгоритмів, порівняння та обчислення, набір закодованих команд, кодування програми для комп’ютера, професійний програміст, вирішувати специфічні проблеми, математичні терміни, маніпулювати формулами, належна послідовність, фаза розробки, логічний напрямок програми, ілюструвати логіку програми, графічне та ілюстративне представлення, два звичайних методи, менш затратна у часі.

3. Match the words in A with their synonyms in B:


essence a way

formulae to defend

to guard slogan

burden entity

to emphasize load

an approach to stress

to perform to execute

4. Fill in the gaps with the words from Vocabulary Notes in the appropriate form.

A flowchart / sequence / program / formulae / to perform / equations / a template / a pseudocode / decision / looping logic

1) Programming is the process of preparing a set of coded instructions to solve specific problems or … specific functions. 2) Any problem is expressed in mathematical terms as it contains … , … and calculations. 3) … are lists of instructions that will be followed by the control unit of the CPU. 4) … is a plan in the form of a graphic or pictorial representation that uses predefined symbols to illustrate the program logic. 5) A plastic or metal guide called … is used to make drawing the symbols easier. 6) … is the second technique for planning program logic. 7) Pseudocode has three basic structures: … , … and … .

Translate sentences into English using words and word combinations from the Vocabulary Notes.

1) Закодовані інструкції дозволяють комп’ютеру розв’язувати різні завдання та виконувати специфічні функції. 2) Програма для комп’ютера шифрується у вигляді алгоритмів, щоб машина могла розуміти і виконувати різні дії. 3) Інструкції до програми повинні бути повними і розміщуватись в належній послідовності, щоб запобігти неправильному результату. 4) Для планування логіки програми є два загальноприйнятих методи: перший – складання блок-схем, а другий – символічний код. 5) Другий метод програмування – менш загайний у часі і в ньому акцентується увага на низхідному підході до структури програми.

The Grammar in Use

The Infinitive

1. Translate the sentences and word-combinations, using Infinitive in the function of :

A. adverbial modifier

1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of computations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable transistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computational time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use integrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Analytical engine was invented to store data.

B. attribute

The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.

2. Analyze the forms of Infinitive and translate following sentences:

1. A printer is an example of a device to produce output in a human-readable format.

2. The high-speed devices to be used as secondary storage are both input and output devices.

3. The progress of electronics to have resulted in the invention of electronic computers was a breakthrough of the second part of the 20th century.

4. Mendeleyev's periodic law to have been accepted as a universal law of nature is of great importance nowadays.

5. When output is available, output interfaces must be designed to reverse the process and to adopt the output to the external environment.

6. The memory stores the instructions and the data to be quickly retrieved on demand by the CPU.

7. Computers to have been designed originally for arithmetic pur­poses are applicable for great variety of tasks at present.

8. The film to have been running for over a month this year attracts at­tention of many spectators.

9. The CPU of a computer to be arranged in a single or very small number of integrated circuits is called a microprocessor.

3. Analyse the sentences containing constructions "for + Infinitive" and "Objective with the Infinitive". Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. It was not difficult for the pupils to understand the function of the mouse in computer operation.

2. There is no reason for computer experts to use computers of the first generation nowadays.

3. The mechanism is provided with special devices for the whole system to function automatically.

4. The text was very interesting but rather difficult for the students to translate it without a dictionary.

5. It is not easy for me to learn to speak English fluently.

6. We know the machine to react to a series of electrical impulses that can be represented in binary numbers.

7. Scientists considered silicon to be one of the best materials for the creation of an IС.

8. We know all data to be translated into binary code before being stored in main storage.

9. Engineers expect these new devices to be tested very soon.

10. They want their son to become a computer operator and to design new computer models.

4. Translate sentences with Nominative with the Infinitive construction:

1. Printers are known to vary greatly in performance and design.

2. They are expected to be the most commonly used devices.

3. Magnetic fields are supposed to effect a high iron content of the ink.

4. The ink-jet printer is stated to be one of the newest types of character printers.

5. Electrophotographic techniques proved to have developed from the paper copier technology.

6. An impact printer is considered to produce a printed character by impacting a character font against the paper.

7. Dot-matrix printers seem to have a lower quality of type.

8. The most common printer type used on larger systems is sure to be the line printer.

9. A lot of techniques are believed to be used in the design of printers.

10. A laser is certain to be an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

11. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, new models and competitive oper­ating systems seemed to appear daily.

Additional Text

(for individual work)

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