Divide the text into the logical parts and give a title to each one. Put questions to the text
Put questions to the text.
Discuss it with your groupmates.
Text Study. Automation.
Additional Text. At an Automatic Plant.
I. Pre-reading Exercises
1. Repeat the words in chorus:
Manufacturing, simplification, environment, dangerous, numerically, especially, signaling, agriculture, though, nevertheless, workpiece, feedback, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacture.
2. While reading the text you will come across a number of international words. Try to guess what Ukrainian words they remind of you:
Machine, operation, control, system, automobile, product, pilot, telephone, mechanization, robot, to manipulate, function, method, principle, thermostat, magnetic, microprocessor, computer, centre.
3. Pay attention to some grammatical points:
1) The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. 2) Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine. 3) When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. 4) After the drawing has been completedthe computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.
Read the text and be ready to find in the text the answers to the following questions:
Automation is performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.
The term automation is also used to describe nonmanufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.
Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.
Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.
In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.
The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is the flyball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the steam engine. The common household thermostat is another example of a feedback device.
Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.
Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.
More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers has made possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.
Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.
Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing.
Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialing and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.
automation["Ltq'meISqn] — автоматизація
previously['prJvjqslI]— раніше, попередньо
sequence['sJkwqns] — послідовність
aid[eId] — допомога
handling['hxndlIN]— робота, обробка; переміщення, транспортування
to substitute ['sAbstItjHt] — замінювати
to resemble[rI'zembl]— бути схожим, нагадувати (когось/щось)
to monitor['mOnItq] — контролювати
sensor['sensq]— датчик, сенсор
assembly[q'semblI]plant — складальний завод
nonmanufacturing ['nOn"mxnju'fxkCqrIN] — невиробничий
efficiency [I'fISqnsI] — ефективність
steam engine — парова машина, паровий двигун
household thermostat ['TWmqstxt] — побутовий термостат
facilitate[fq'sIlIteIt] — сприяти, полегшувати
punched[pAnCqd] — перфорований
feedback—зворотний зв’язок, зворотне живлення