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Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following

Nowadays, principal, direction, to consist, mechanized forms of work, some decades ago, throughout the world, branch of science, integration, parts of automation, automatic assembly, extension, qualitatively new step, radical changes, the principal agent, maintaining, mechanical device, to enable, to lighten the work, tremendous, means of automation, output, creative work, demands of industry.

Give English equivalents of the following.

Головний напрямок, технологічний прогрес, механізовані форми роботи, рідко, визнавати в усьому світі, незалежна галузь науки, єдиний процес, якісно новий крок, радикальні зміни, об’єкт праці, з появою автоматизації, психологічні функції, підприємство, механізовані та автоматизовані виробничі лінії, полегшувати роботу, щорічно, торгові та транспортні підприємства, засоби автоматизації, системи контролю, обладнання, вимагати, компенсувати витрати, творча робота, вимоги промисловості, застосування гнучких автоматизованих систем.

3. Match the words in A with their synonyms in B:


Principal work

Seldom publications

Independent rarely

Mechanism comprehensively

tremendous number to call for

articles main

job free

absolutely device

to demand great amount

Fill in the gaps with the words from the box in the appropriate form.

To lighten/automatic assembly/ FM/, automatic control/ to retain/ to demand

1) … is a progressive independent branch of science and engineering. 2) The integral parts of automation are: transfer machining, …, communication engineering and control engineering. 3) The man … the functions of control, regulation, maintaining machines and direct intervention in production process. 4) The mechanized and automated production lines … the work of a tremendous number of workers. 5) The comprehensive automation … material inputs and time. 6) The experts consider the … to be the future of the automated factory.

Translate sentences into English using words and word combinations from the Vocabulary Notes.

1) Автоматизація — шлях до інтенсифікації виробництва. 2) У світі здійснюється широка програма автоматизації виробництва в різних галузях промисловості. 3) Сьогодні вже діє на основі ЕОМ багато тисяч автоматизованих і автоматичних систем управління (АСУ). 4) Сучасні умови роботи в промисловості часто роблять неможливим ручне (неавтоматизоване) управління виробничими процесами. 5) АСУ керують різними технологічними процесами на промислових підприємствах, в установах. Вони також виконують завдання економічного забезпечення та контролю виробництва, здійснюють різні вимірювання та дослідження виготовленої продукції. 6) Автоматизація полегшує працю людини, створює умови для її творчості й всебічного гармонійного розвитку.

Grammar in Use


1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning of the word “since ”:

Note: since adj 1) оскільки; 2) з того часу як

since prep – з, після; since adv – з того часу, тому назад

1. Since the first rocket appeared many changes have taken place in this field of science. 2. The unit of measure for frequency is seconds since time is the only unit of measure. 3. Since the jet engine is a powerful source of energy, it is widely used for machines flying at supersonic speed 4. Many other discoveries have been made since radioactivity was discovered. 5. Oxygen has been known since the 18th century. 6. Copper is the metal commonly used as a conductor since it combines high conductivity with comparatively low cost. 6. Since the time of Galileo and Newton, knowledge concerning the universe has increased rapidly. 7. Now we can say what electricity is since modern development gave us the electron theory. 8. Large deposits of molybdenum were discovered in this country in 1934, its commercial development has been rapid since.

2. State parts of speech the words in bold type belong to. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian taking into account different meanings of the word “provide”:

Note: provide v – забезпечувати, давати

to provide for – передбачати

provided (that) cj – при умові, що; якщо тільки

providing cj - при умові, що; якщо тільки

1. This investigation provided new methods for creating new synthetic materials. 2. Provided this synthetic fibre is cheap, it will be widely used in the manufacture of many products. 3. When you are separating pure substance from a mixture you must provide for possible mistake. 4. Provided we are given all necessary instruments we will be able to continue our investigations. 5. Sometimes a graphical representation of data can provide you with a particularly valuable piece of information. 6. This laboratory provided with up-to-date equipment solves many important problems. 7. As an outstanding advantage, polyesters provide a good combination of mechanical and electrical properties at relatively low cost. 8. Provided we use the necessary instruments, the measurements will always be correct.

3. Complete the article. Use but, although or however.

Bill Gates became interested in computers at school although in those days they weren’t very common. When he left school, he went to Harvard University to study law. _____ , he spent most of his time in the computer center. In 1975, he and his friend Paul Allen successfully wrote a software program for the first microcomputer, an Altair, _____ they didn’t even have one. Gates was top of his class at Harvard , ____ he left without finishing degree. Then he and Allen started Microsoft. In 1990s, the US government wanted to break up a Microsoft because they said the company was a monopoly. Gates was able to stop them, _____ . Today Gates is billionaire, _____ he also gives millions dollars for charity.

Additional Text

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