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English-Ukrainian Dictionary 4 страница



velocity [vI'lOsItI] — швидкість

verification ["verIfI'keIS(q)n] — перевірка; контроль

verifier — пристрій / програма перевірки

verify — перевіряти; контролювати

versatile['vWsqtaIl] — різнобічний; багатофункціональний

versatility - різнобічність; багатофункціональність;універсальнність

version— версія; варіант

common ~ — поширена версія

data ~ ['deItq] — варіант даних

electronic~ — електронна версія

executable ~ [Ig'zekjVtqbl] — виконавча версія

original ~ — початковий варіант

view — вид; подання; перегляд

viewpoint— точка зору

viewport — вікно перегляду / виводу

virtual ['vWCVql] — віртуальний; нереальний; неіснуючий

voltage['vqVltIdZ] — (електричне) напруга

volume — об'єм; величина; кількість

sound ~ — гучність звуку

vulnerability ["vAln(q)rq'bIlItI] — вразливість; чутливість; схильність

vulnerable — чутливий; уразливий; схильний

W

wafer['weIfq] — пластина; підкладка

wait— очікування; чекати, чекати

want — недолік; брак; потребу; бракувати)

wanted — потрібний; необхідний

warning ['wLnIN] — попередження

watchdog['wPCdPg] — сторожова програма

waveguide['weIvgaId] — хвилевід

wavelength['weIvleNT] — довжина хвилі

way — шлях; спосіб; засіб; можливість

in а ~ — в певному відношенні; до певної міри

in any ~ — будь-яким способом; як завгодно

in different ~ s — різними способами; по-різному

in no ~ — жодною мірою; ніяк

in the same ~ — так само; в той самий спосіб

web — (інформаційна) мережа

information ~ — інформаційна мережа (сайтів на серверах мережі Internet)

World-Wide ~ — всесвітня інформаційна мережа

wide area network — глобальна мережа

width— ширина; розрядність (шини, пам'яті)

withdraw [wID'drL]— видаляти; прибирати; виймати

withdrawal [wID'drLql] — видалення; виймання; вилучення

word — слово; текстовий

~ processing['proVsqsIN] — редагування текстів

~ processing program — текстовий редактор

~ wrap ['rxp] — перенесення слів

worksheet ['wWk"SJt] — електронна таблиця

world wide — глобальний; всесвітній

worm — (комп'ютерний) черв'як

writer — записуючий пристрій; програма запису; автор; розробник

X

xerocopy — ксерокопія

xerox ['zIqrPks] — ксерокопіювати

Х-гау— рентгенівський (про випромінювання монітора)

Y

yet — проте, все ж, ще

yield [jJld] — вихід (результатів); видача; видавати; отримувати (значення)

Z

zero ['zI(q)rqV] — нуль; нульовий; обнуляти

of ~ — рівний нулю

to ~ out — обнуляти

time ~ — початок відліку часу

zone [zqVn] — зона; область; полоса

buffer ~ — буферна область

storage ~ — область пам'яті

 



ABBREVIATIONS

А

ABC - Atanasoff Berry Computer - комп'ютер Атанасоф ADC - analog-to-digital converter - аналого-цифровий перетворювач

ADP - automated data processing - автоматизована обробка даних

ALU - arithmetic-logical unit - арифметико-логічний пристрій (блок центрального процесора, який виконує всі дії мікропроцесора на основі математичних і логічних операцій)

API - Application programming interface - інтерфейс прикладного управління

APL - A Programmable language - високорівнева мова програмування

ASM - Association for System Management - асоціація по системному управлінню

AU - arithmetic unit - арифметичний пристрій

a. v.c. - Automatic volume control - автоматичне регулювання гучності

В

BASIC - (скор. від Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) - простий у використанні мова програмування високого рівня, розроблений в 1964 р.

BDOS - basic disk operating system - базова дискова операційна система

BIOS - basic input / output system - базова система введення-виводу

b. o.p.s. - Billion operations per second - мільярд операцій в секунду (одиниця вимірювання швидкодії системи)

bpi - Bits per inch - число біт на дюйм

b.p.s. - Bits per second - число біт в секунду (одиниця вимірювання щільності запису на носії)

С

CAD - computer-aided design - комп'ютерне проектування

CAI - computer-aided instruction - комп'ютерне навчання

CAN - cancel - символ скасування

CAT - computer-aided testing - комп'ютерний контроль (тести вання)

CD - compact-disk - компакт-диск

CDD - compact-disk drive - дисковод для компакт-дисків

CD-DA - compact disk-digital audio - цифровий аудіо компакт-диск

CD-ROM - compact disk, read only memory – неперезаписуванимй ком пакт диск

CGA - color graphics adapter - кольоровий графічний адаптер

CMI - computer-managed instruction - команди, що подаються комп'ютером

CMOS - complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor - комплементарна структура метал-оксид-напівпровідник (носій КМОП-пам'яті)

COBOL - Common Business Oriented Language - мова програмування високого рівня

cps - characters per second - число символів в секунду (одиниця вимірювання швидкості друку принтера)

CPU - central processing unit - центральний процесор (ЦП)

CRT - cathode-ray tube - електроннопроменева трубка (дисплея)

CU - control unit - пристрій керування

D

DB - database - база даних

DEL - delete - символ видалення

DMA - direct memory access - прямий доступ до пам'яті

DOS - disk operating system - дискова операційна система

DS - double-sided - двосторонній

DVD - digital video disk - цифровий відеодиск

E

ECC - error-correction code - код з виправленням помилок

EDI - Electronic Data Interchange - електронний обмін даними

ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator - електронно-числовий інтегратор і калькулятор

EDP - electronic data processing - електронна обробка даних

EPROM - erasable programmable read-only memory - стирані

програмований постійний запам'ятовуючий пристрій (ППЗУ)

ЕТВ - end of transmission block - кінець блоку передачі (символ)

F

FCB - file control block - блок управління файлами

FD - floppy disk - гнучкий диск

FDD - floppy-disk drive - дисковод для гнучких дисків

FORTRAN - скор. від fourth generation programming language - Фортран (мова програмування високого рівня, орієнтований на вирішення завдань математичного характеру)

FTR - File Transfer Protocol - протокол передачі файлів

G

GB, Gb - gigabyte - гігабайт Gc - gigacycle - гігацікл

GP - general purpose - загального призначення

GUI - Graphical User Interface - графічний інтерфейс користувача

H

HD - high density - висока щільність

HDD - hard-disk drive - дисковод для жорсткого диска

Hi-Fi - high fidelity - високонадійний; з високою точністю

відтворення HF - high frequency - високочастотний

HW, hw - hardware - апаратура, обладнання; апаратні засоби

I

IAB - Internet Activities Board - Керуючий рада з питань діяльності Internet

IBM - International Business Machine - фірма з виробництва комп'ютерів

1С - integrated circuit - інтегральна схема

I / О-input / output - пристрій вводу-виводу

Intel - найбільша у світі корпорація з виробництва мікропроцесорів (США)

Internet - Intercontinental Network - система з'єднаних ком'ютерних мереж світового масштабу

IP - Internet Protocol - протокол маршрутизації

ISOC - Internet Society - Суспільство Internet

IT - information technology - інформаційна техніка / технологія

К

KB, Kbyte - кілобайт

К / В, KBD, kbd - keyboard - клавіатура

Кс - kilocycle - кілоциклів

KHz - kilohertz - КГц, кілогерц

L

LAN - local-area network - локальна мережа

LCD - liquid-crystal display - рідкокристалічний дисплей

LSI - large-scale integration - високий рівень інтеграції

M

MB, Mb - megabyte - мегабайт

M / В - motherboard - материнська плата

МСВ - memory control block - блок управління пам'яттю

MIS - management information system - управлінська інформаційна система

MMCD - Multimedia Compact Disk - мультимедійний компакт-диск

MP - microprocessor - мікропроцесор

MPU - microprocessor unit - мікропроцесорний пристрій

MS DOS - Microsoft Disk Operational System - стандартна опе раційну система для IBM і IBM-сумісних комп’ютерів, розрахована на одного користувача

MSI - medium-scale integrated circuit - середня інтегральна схема

N

NAK - negative acknowledgement - непідтвердження прийому (символ)

NetBIOS - Network Basic Input / Output System - базова система вводу-виводу мережі

O

OCR - optical character reader - оптичний пристрій считування (розпізнавання) знаків

OMR - optical mark reader - оптичний пристрій зчитування знаків

OR - АБО (логічна операція)

OS - operating system - операційна система

Р

PC - personal computer - персональний комп'ютер PFM - pulse-frequency

modulation - частотно-імпульсна модуляція

PIF - program information fde - інформаційний файл програми

PILOT - скор. від Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching - авторізованний мова для машинного навчання, розроблений Дж. Старквезером (John Starkweather) в Каліфорнійському Університеті в 1968 р.

PL - Programming Language - мова програмування

PROLOG - PROgramming in LOGic - мова програмування високого рівня, який використовується в дослідженнях, пов'язаних зі штучним інтелектом

PROM - programmable read-only memory - програмоване постійне запам'ятовуючий пристрій

R

RAM - random-access memory - оперативний запам'ятовуючий пристрій

г.с. - Remote control - дистанційне керування r.mt.

Reverse motion - зворотний рух ROM - read-only memory – постійний запам'ятовуючий пристрій

R / W - read / write - читання - запис

S

SATAN - Sequrity Administrator Tool for Analysing Networks - програма, призначена для оцінки стану безпечності комп'ютера або локальної мережі, підключеного до Internet

SCSI - Small Computer System Interface - Інтерфейс малих комп'ютерних систем

SNOBOL - String-Oriented Symbolic Language - мова програмування високого рівня, орієнтований на обробку символьних послідовностей

SOM - start of message - початок повідомлення

SP - space character - символ пробілу

SSI - small-scale integration - інтеграція малого рівня

Т

TCP - Transmission Control Protocol - транспортний протокол TF - time factor - коефіцієнт часу Turbo Pascal - швидкодіючий компілятор для мови Pascal (1984 р.)

U

ULSI - ultralarge-scale integration - інтеграція ультрависокої рівня

UNIVAC - UNIVersal Automatic Computer - універсальний комп'ютер

UNIX - операційна система, яка використовується в багатьох комп’ютера (від персональних до мейнфреймів)

UPS - uninterrupted power supply - безперебійне джерело, харчування

URL - Universal Resource Locator - універсальний покажчик ресурсів

V

VDT - visual display terminal - відеотермінал v. f. - Video frequency - відеочастоті v. f. - Velocity factor - коефіцієнт швидкості

VLSI - very large-scale integration - інтеграція надвисокого рівня

VR - virtual reality - віртуальна реальність v. р. - voltage regulator - регулятор напруги

VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language - мова моделірова ня віртуальної реальності

VT - vertical tabulator - вертикальний табулятор

W

WAN - wide-area network - глобальна мережа

WWW - World Wide Web - Всесвітня інформаційна мережа

GLOSSARY

A

ABEND — this term is short for abnormal end, and refers to a program stopping prematurely due to a bug. Іt is more commonly associated with main-frame programs, as this is its origin. Another purported origin of the term is that ABEND is called «abend» because it is what system operators do to the computer late on Friday when they want to call it a day, and hence is from the German word «Abend» meaning «Evening». This is untrue.

Ada (programming language) — named after Ada Lovelace, who is con­sidered by many to be the first programmer.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.) — Typically the upstream data flow is between 16 and 640 kilobits per second while the downstream data flow is between 1.5 and 9 megabits per second. ADSL also provides a voice channel.

Apache — the web server from the Apache Software Foundation.

Originally this name was chosen by an author just because it was a catchy name. Soon enough, it was suggested that the name was indeed appropriate, because its founders got started by applying patches to code written for NCSA's httpd daemon. The result was «a patchy» server.

Awk — a computer pattern/action language, name made up of the surna­mes of its authors Alfred V. Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, and Brian W. Kernighan.

В

В (programming language) — В was created by Ken Thompson as a revi­sion of the BCPL programming language.

Biff — a command to turn on asynchronous email notification on Unix systems. Actually named after a dog at U.C. Berkeley, who would bark when mail was delivered. (The dog belonged to Heidi Stettner, validation of this from Eric Cooper.)

Bit — Claude E. Shannon first used the word bit in a 1948 paper. Shan­non's bit is a portmanteau word for binary digit (or possibly binary digit). He attributed its origin to John W. Tukey. Bon programming language — Bon was created by Ken Thompson and named after his wife Bonnie. However accor­ding to an encyclopedia quotation in Bon's manual, it was named after a reli­gion whose rituals involve the murmuring of magic formulas.

Booting or bootstrapping — The term booting or bootstrapping a computer was inspired by the story of the Baron Munchhausen where he pulls himself out of a swamp by the straps on his boots.

Bug — a fault in a computer program which prevents it from working cor­rectly.

The term is often (but erroneously) credited to Grace Hopper. In 1946, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she traced an error in the Harvard Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay. This bug was carefully removed and taped to the log book.

However, use of the word «bug» to describe defects in mechanical systems dates back to at least the 1870s. Thomas Edison, for one, used the term in his notebooks.

Byte — the term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the IBM Stretch computer. It was coined by mutating the word bite so it would not be accidentally misspelled as bit.

С

С (programming language) — Dennis Ritchie improved on the В program­ming language and called it New B. He later called it C.

С++ — an object-oriented programming language and a successor to the С programming language.

С++ creator Bjarne Stroustrup called his new language «C with Classes* and then «newC». Because of which the original Cbegan to be called «o!dC» which was considered insulting to the С community. At this time Rick Mascitti suggested the name С++ as a successor to C. In С the'++' operator incre­ments the value of the variable it is appended to, thus С++ would increment the value of C.

Cookie — A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server.

The term was coined by web browser programmer Lou Montulli after the term «magic cookies» used by Unix programmers.

D-F

Daemon ['dJmqn] — a process in an operating system that runs in the background.

It is falsely considered an acronym for Disk And Execution MONitor. Ac­cording to the original team that introduced the concept, «the use of the word daemon was inspired by the Maxwell's daemon of physics and thermody­namics (an imaginary agent which helped sort molecules of different speeds and worked tirelessly in the background)*. The earliest use appears to have been in the phrase «daemon of Socrates», which meant his «guiding or ind­welling spirit; his genius», also a pre—Christian equivalent of the «Guardian Angel», or, alternatively, a demigod (bearing only an etymological connection to the word «demon»). The term was embraced, and possibly popularized, by the Unix operating systems: various local (and later Internet) services were provided by daemons. This is exemplified by the BSD mascot, John Lasseter's drawing of a friendly imp (copyright Marshall Kirk McKusick). Thus, a dae­mon is something that works magically without anyone being much aware ofit.

Debian — a linux distribution, a portmanteau of project creator Ian Миг-dock's name and that of his girlfriend (now wife) Debra.

Emacs ['Jmxks] — a text editor, acronym for Editor MACroS.

Finger — Unix command that provides information about users logged into a system. Les Earnest wrote the finger program in 1971 to solve the need of users who wanted information on other users of the network. Prior to the finger pro­gram, the only way to get this information was with a who program that showed IDs and terminal line numbers for logged—in users, and people used to run their fingers down the «who» list. Earnest named his program after this con­cept.

Foobar — from the U.S. Army slang acronym, FUBAR.

G

Gentoo ['dZFntH] — a linux distribution, a variety of penguin, the universal linux logo.

GHz Gigahertz, equivalent to one thousand megahertz.

GNU — a project with a goal of creating a free operating system.

Gnu is also a species of African antelope. Founder of the GNU project Richard Stallman liked the name because of the humour associated with its pronunciation and was also influenced by the song The Gnu Song, by Flanders and Swann which is a song sung by a gnu. Also it fitted into the recursive acro­nym culture with «GNU's Not Unix».

Google — search engine on the web.

The name started as a jokey boast about the amount of information the search-engine would be able to search. It was originally named 'Googol', a word for the number represented by 1 followed by 100 zeros. The word was originally invented by Milton Sirotta, nephew of mathematician Edward Kas-ner in 1938 during a discussion of large numbers and exponential notation.

Gopher — a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol on the internet.

The source of the name is claimed to be three-fold: first, that it is used to «go-for» information; second, that it does so through a menu of links analo­gous to gopher holes; and third, that the mascot of the protocol authors' or­ganization, the University of Minnesota, is Goldy the Gopher.

grep — a Unix command line utility.

The name comes from a command in the Unix text editor ed that takes the form g/re/p meaning search globally for a regular expression and print lines where instances are found. «Grep» like «Google» is often used as a verb, mea­ning «tosearch».

H-K

Hotmail — free email service, now part of MSN.

Founder Jack Smith got the idea of accessing e-mail via the web from a computer anywhere in the world. When Sabeer Bhatia came up with the busi­ness plan for the mail service, he tried all kinds of names ending in 'mail' and finally settled for Hotmail as it included the letters «HTML» — the markup language used to write web pages. It was initially referred to as HoTMaiL with selective upper casing.

il8n — short for internationalization.

«18» is for the number of letters between the i and the n. The term 11 On (for localization) has failed to catch on to the same degree, but is used by some.

ICQ — an instant messaging service.

ICQ is not an acronym. It is a play on the phrase «I seek you» (similar to CQ in ham radio usage).

IDIOT — pronounced «ID ten T» — is a code frequently used by a cus­tomer service representative (CSR) to annotate their notes and identify the source of a problem as the person who is reporting the problem rather than the system being blamed. This is a thinly veiled reference to the CSR's opinion that the person reporting the problem is an IDIOT. Example: Problem герой ed caused by IDIOT, no resolution possible. See also PEBKAC.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) which provides speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second.

Jakarta Project — a project constituted by Sun and Apache to create a web server for Java servlets and JSPs.

Jakarta was the name of the conference room at Sun where most of the meetings between Sun and Apache took place. The conference room was most likely named after Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, which is located on the northwest coast of the island of Java.

Java ['dZRvq] — programming language.

Originally called «D», but with the connotation of a near-failing mark on a report card the language was renamed Oak by Java-creator James Gosling, from the tree that stood outside his window. The programming team at Sun had to look for a substitute name as there was already another programming language called Oak. «Java» was selected from a list of suggestions, primarily because it is a popular slang term for coffee, especially that grown on the island of Java. As the programmers drank a lot of coffee, this seemed an appropriate name.

Kerberos — a computer network authentication protocol that is used by both Windows 2000 and Windows XP as their default authentication method.

When created by programmers at MIT in the 1970s, they wanted a name that respesented true security for the project, so they named it after the Greek mythology character kerberos, (also spelled Cerberus), the mythical three-headed canine guarding Hades' gates. The reference to Greek mythology is most likely because Kerberos was developed as part of Project Athena.

L

Linux — an operating system kernel, and the common name for the oper­ating system which uses it.

Linux creator Linus Torvalds originally used the Minix operating system on his computer, didn't like it, liked MS-DOS less, and started a project to develop an operating system that would address the problems of Minix. Hence the working name was Linux (Linus' Minix). He thought the name to be too egotistical and planned to name it Freax (free + freak + x). His friend Ari Lemmke encouraged Linus to upload it to a network so it could be easily down­loaded. Ari gave Linus a directory called linux on his FTP server, as he did not like the name Freax.

Lisa ['lJzq / 'laIzq] — A personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s.

Apple stated that LISA was an acronym for Local Integrated Software Ar­chitecture; however, it is often inferred that the machine was originally named after the daughter of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, and that this acronym was invented later to fit the name. Accordingly, two humorous suggestions for ex­panding the acronym included Let's Invent Some Acronym and Let's Invent Silly Acronyms.

Lotus Software — Lotus founder Mitch Kapor got the name for his com­pany from 'The Lotus Position' ('Padmasana' in Sanskrit). Kapor used to be a teacher of Transcendental Meditation technique as taught by Maharishi Ma-heshYogi.

М

Apple Macintosh, Mac ['mxkIntPS] — computer system from Apple Computer.

from Mcintosh, a popular type of apple. Jef Raskin, a computer scientist, is credited with this naming.

Mac OS — The operating system used in the Macintosh computer system from «Мае», a shortened form of Macintosh and a commonly used name for the Macintosh computer system (see elsewhere on this page), and «OS», the common abbreviation for «operating system*.

Memoization — the process of automatically modifying functions to in­clude caching behavior.

Coined by Donald Michie in his 1968 paper Memo Functions and Machine Learning.

Mozilla — a web browser and successor to Netscape Communicator.

When Marc Andreessen, founder of Netscape, created a browser to re­place the Mosaic browser, it was internally named Mozilla (Mosaic-Killer, Godzilla). When Netscape's Navigator source code was made open source, Mozilla was the internal name for the open source version.

MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts' Group) ['Fm"pFg] — a standard for compressing and decompressing images.

N-O

Nerd [nWd] — A colloquial term for a computer person, especially an obsessive, singularly focused one.

Earlier spelling of the term is «Nurd» and the original spelling is «Knurd», but the pronunciation has remained the same. The term originated at the Rens­selaer Polytechnic Institute in the late 1940s. Students who partied, and rarely studied were called «Drunks», while the opposite — students who never par-tied and always studied were «Knurd» («Drunk» spelled backwards). The term was also (independently) used in a Dr. Seuss book, and on the TV show Happy Days, giving it international popularity.

Novell NetWare — a network operating system from Novell.

Novell, Inc. was originally Novell Data Systems co-founded by George Canova. The name was suggested by George's wife who mistakenly thought that «Novell» meant «new» in French.

Oracle ['Prqk(q)l] — a relational database management system (RDBMS).

Larry Ellison, Ed Oates and Bob Miner were working on a consulting project for the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). The code name for the project was called Oracle (the CIA evidently saw this as a system that would give answers to all questions). The project was designed to use the newly writ­ten SQL database language from IBM. The project eventually was terminated but they decided to finish what they started and bring it to the world. They kept the name Oracle and created the RDBMS engine.

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Рас-Man — a video arcade game.

The term comes from раки раки which is a Japanese onomatopoeia (writ­ten version of a noise) used for noisy eating; similar to chomp chomp. The game was released in Japan with the name Puck-Man, and released in the US with the name Рас-Man, fearing that kids may deface a Puck-Man cabinet by chan­ging the Pto an F.

PCMCIA — the standards body for PC card and ExpressCard, expansion card form factors.

The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association is an in­ternational standards body that defines and promotes standards for expansion devices such as modems and external hard disk drives to be connected to note­book computers. Overtime, the acronym PCMCIA has been used to referto the PC card form factor used on notebook computers. A twist on the acronym is People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms.

PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) which includes an address book, a calen­dar, Internet access, etc.

PEBKAC — an acronym for «Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair», which is a code frequently used by a customer service representative (CSR) to annotate their notes and identify the source of a problem as the per­son who is reporting the problem rather than the system being blamed. This is a thinly veiled reference to the CSR's opinion that the person reporting the problem is the problem. Example: PEBKAC, no resolution possible. See also IDIOT.

Pentium— Microprocessor from Intel.

The fifth microprocessor in the 80x86 series. It would have been called i586 or 80586, but Intel decided to name it Pentium (penta = five) after it lost a trademark infringement lawsuit against AM D (the judgment was that num­bers like «286», «386», and «486» could not be trademarked). According to Intel, Pentium conveys a meaning of strength, like titanium.

Since some early Pentium chips contained a mathematical precision error, it has been jokingly suggested that the reason for the chip being named Pen­tium rather than 586 was that Intel chips would calculate 486 + 100 = = 585.99999948.

Perl[pWl] — an interpreted scripting language.

Perl was originally named Pearl, after the «pearl of great price» of Mat­thew 13:46. Larry Wall, the creator of Perl, wanted to give the language a short name with positive connotations and claims to have looked at (and rejected) every three- and four-letter word in the dictionary. He even thought of naming it after his wife Gloria. Before the language's official release Wall discovered that there was already a programming language named Pearl, and changed the spelling of the name. Although the original manuals suggested the backronyms «Practical Extraction and Report Language* and «Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister», these were intended humorously.





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