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English-Ukrainian Dictionary 5



PHP a server-side scripting language.

Originally called Personal Home Page Tools by creator Rasmus Ler-dorf, it was rewritten by developers Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans who gave it the recursive name Hypertext Preprocessor*. Lerdorf currently insists the name should not be thought of as standing for anything, for he selected Personal Home Page* as the name when he did not forsee PHP evolving into a general-purpose programming language.

Pine [paIn] e-mail client. Acronym for Program for Internet News & Email*. It is also a recursive acronym for Pine Is Not Elm (in reference to Elm, another email client).

Ping computer network tool used to detect hosts.

The author of ping, Mike Muuss, named it after the pulses of sound made by a sonar called a ping. Later Dave Mills provided the backronym Packet Internet Groper.

PKZIP compression, or zipping tool. It was written by Phil Katz and stands for Phil Katz's ZIP program.

Python (programming language) ['paIT(q)n] an interpreted scripting language. Named after the television series Monty Python's Flying Circus.

R

Radio button ['reIdIqV 'bAtn] a G UI widget used for making selections.

Radio buttons got their name from the preset buttons in radio receivers. When one used to select preset stations on a radio receiver physically instead of electronically, depressing one preset button would pop out whichever other button happened to be pushed in.

Red Hat Linux a Linux distribution from Red Hat.

Company founder Marc Ewing was given the Cornell lacrosse team cap (with red and white stripes) while at college by his grandfather. People would turn to him to solve their problems, and he was referred to as that guy in the red hat. He lost the cap and had to search for it desperately. The manual of the beta version of Red Hat Linux had an appeal to readers to return his Red Hat if found by anyone.

RSA an asymmetric algorithm for public key cryptography.

Based on the surnames of the authors of this algorithm Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman.

S

Samba software ['sxmbq] a free implementation of Microsoft's networking protocol. The name samba comes from inserting two vowels into the name of the standard protocol that Microsoft Windows network file system use, called SM (Server Message Block). The author searched a dictionary usinggrep for words containing S M and in that order; the only matches were Samba and Salmonberry.

SCO UNIX - a UNIX variant from SCO.

The company was called Santa Cruz Operations*, as its office was in Santa Cruz, California.



Sed stands for stream editor, used for textual transformation of a sequential stream of text data. It is modelled after the ed editor.

Shareware ['SFq"wFq] coined by Bob Wallace to describe his word processor PC-Write in early 1983. Prior to this Jim Button and Andrew Fluegelman called their distributed software user supported softwares- and freeware respectively, but it was Wallace's terminology that stuck.

Slashdot a technology oriented weblog.

While registering the domain, Slashdot-creator Rob Malda wanted to make the U RL silly, and unpronounceable Alternatively, many say that the Slashdot(/.) name refers to the *NIX command line interpretation of the root directory, or a play on the website being the root of all tech news.

SMS (Short Message Service) which allows you to send short text messages with maximum 160 characters to GSM mobile phones worldwide. GSM is the Global System for mobile Communication that allows transmission of voice and data on mobile phones.

Sosumi one of the system sounds introduced in Apple Computer's System 7 operating system in 1991.

Apple Computer had a long litigation history with Apple Records, the Beatles' recording company. Fearing that the ability to record musical sound would cause yet more legal action, the Apple legal department allegedly ordered the sound to be renamed from its original, musical name. So the developers changed the name to Sosumi (So sue me). Depending on who was asked, they quipped that it was Japanese for either absence of sound* or a light pleasing tone.

Spam [spxm] unwanted repetitious messages, such as unsolicited bulk e-mail.

The term spam is derived from the Monty Python SPAM sketch, set in a cafe where everything on the menu includes SPAM luncheon meat. While a customer plaintively asks for some kind of food without SPAM in it, the server reiterates the SPAM-filled menu. Soon, a chorus of Vikings join in with a song: SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, lovely SPAM, wonderful SPAM, over and over again, drowning out all conversation.

SPIM a simulator for a virtual machine closely resembling the instruction set of MIPS processors, is simply MIPS spelled backwards. MIPS stands for Millions of Instructions Per Second, from way back when that was something to boast of. In recent time, SPIM has also come to mean SPam sent over Instant Messaging.

Swing a graphics library for Java.

Swing was the code-name of the project that developed the new graphic components (the successor of AWT). It was named after swing, a style of dance band jazz that was popularized in the 1930s and unexpectedly revived in the 1990s. Although an unofficial name for the components, it gained popular acceptance with the use of the word in the package names for the Swing API, which begin with javax.swing.

T-V

Tomcat a web server from the Jakarta Project

Tomcat was the code-name forthe JSDK 2.1 project inside Sun. Tomcat started off as a servlet specification implementation by James Duncan Davidson who was a software architect at Sun. Davidson had initially hoped that the project would be made open-source, and since most open-source projects had O'Reilly books on them with an animal on the cover, he wanted to name the project after an animal. He came up with Tomcat since he reasoned the animal represented something that could take care of and fend for itself.

Troff a document processing system for Unix.

Troff stands for typesetter roff, although many people have speculated that it actually means Times roff because of the use of the Times font family in troff by default. Troff has its origins from Roff, an earlier formatting program, whose name is a contraction of run off.

Trojan horse (computing) ['trqVdZ(q)n] a malicious program that is disguised as legitimate software.

The term is derived from the classical myth of the Trojan Horse. Analogously, a Trojan horse appears innocuous (or even to be a gift), but in fact is a vehicle for bypassing security.

TWAIN a standard for acquiring data from image scanners.

Strictly speaking, TWAIN is not an acronym, but has often been referred to as an acronym for Technology Without An Intelligent Name.

Ubuntu Linux a Debian-based Linux distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. The name derives from ubuntu, a South African ideology.

Unix ['jHnIks] an operating system.

When Bell Labs pulled out of MULTICS (M U LTiplexed Information and Computing System), which was originally a joint Bell Labs/GE/M IT project, Ken Thompson of Bell Labs, soon joined by Dennis Ritchie, wrote a simpler version of the operating system. They needed the OS to run the game Space War which had been compiled under MULTICS. The new OS was called UNICS UNIplexed operating and Computing System by Brian Kernighan. An alternative spelling was Eunuchs, it being a sort of'reduced' MULTICS. It was later shortened to Unix.

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, used by 3G mobile phones.

Vi [vaI] a text editor, initialism for visual, a command in the ex editor which helped users to switch to the visual mode from the ex mode.

Vim a text editor, acronym for Vi improved after Vim added several features over the vi editor. Vim however had started out as an imitation of Vi and was expanded as Vi imitation.

Virus ['vaI(q)rqs] a piece of program code that spreads by making copies of itself.

The term virus was first used in print by Fred Cohen in his 1984 paper Experiments with Computer Viruses*, where he credits Len Adleman with coining it. Although Cohen's use of virus may have been the first academic use, it had been in the common parlance long before that. A mid-1970s science fiction novel by David Gerrold, When H.A.R.L.I.E. was One, includes a description of a fictional computer program called VIRUS that worked just like a virus (and was countered by a program called ANTIBODY). The term computer virus* also appears in the comic book UncannyX-n No. 158, published in 1982. A computer virus's basic function is to insert its own executable code into that of other existing executable files, literally making it the electronic equivalent to the biological virus, the basic function of which is to insert its DNA code into the DNA code of other existing cells.

W Z

Wiki or WikiWiki a hypertext document collection or the collaborative software used to create it.

Coined by Ward Cunningham, the creator of the wiki concept, who named them for the wiki wiki or quick shuttle buses at Honolulu Airport. Wiki wiki was the first Hawaiian term he learned on his first visit to the islands. The airport counter agent directed him to take the wiki wiki bus between terminals.

Worm [wWm] a self-replicating program, similar to a virus.

The name 'worm' was taken from a 1970s science fiction novel by John Brunner entitled The Shockwave Rider. The book describes programs known as tapeworms which spread through a network for the purpose of deleting data. Researchers writing an early paper on experiments in distributed computing noted the similarities between their software and the program described by Brunner, and adopted that name.

WYSIWYG ['wIzI"wIg] describes a system in which content during editing appears very similar to the final product.

Acronym for What You See Is What You Get, the phrase was originated by a newsletter published by Arlene and Jose Ramos, called WYSIWYG. It was created for the emerging Pre-Press industry going electronic in the late 1970s.

X Window System ['wIndqV] a windowing system for computers with bitmap displays.

X derives its name as a successor to a pre-1983 window system called W (the W Window System). X follows W in the alphabet. Yahoo! internet portal and web directory.

Yahool's history site says the name is an acronym for Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle*, but some remember that in its early days (mid-1990s), when Yahoo! lived on a server called akebono.stanford.edu, it was glossed as Yet Another Hierarchical Object Organizer.* The word Yahoo! was originally invented by Jonathan Swift and used in his book Gulliver's Travels. It represents a person who is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely human. Yahoo! founders Jerry Yang and David Filo selected the name because they considered themselves yahoos.

Zip [zIp] a file format now also used as a verb to mean compress. The file format was created by Phil Katz, and given the name by his friend Robert Mahoney. The compression tool Phil Katz created was called PKZIP. Zip means speed, and they wanted to imply their product would be faster than ARC and other compression formats of the time.

 

 

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1. -- , -, / .: . . . .: ., 1995.

2. . ., . . -- . .: , 1991.

Contents

....................................................................................... 3

Module I

Computer Literacy for All.................................................................... 4

Module II

Computer Evolution............................................................................ 45

Module I

Computer System................................................................................. 74

Module IV

Computer Hardware......................................................................... 108

Module V

Computer Software........................................................................... 142

Module VI

Surfing the Net................................................................................... 176

Module VII

Automation......................................................................................... 205

Module VIII

Robotics.............................................................................................. 235

English-Ukrainian Dictionary........................................ 264

ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................... 307

GLOSSARY...................................................................................... 312

˲................................................................ 324

 

 


 

 

 

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