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XXIV. Переведите предложения, определив обстоятельственный и независимый причастный обороты



1. Getting no aid from the government, Yablochkov had to spend all his money on his invention. 2. His money having come to an end, he had to leave his country. 3. Having come to France, he was given the possibility to carry on his experiments in the la­boratory of a well-known scientist. 4. A series of attempts hav­ing been made, he came to a successful solution of the problem. 5. Evacuating the bulb, Lodygin created the most reliable condi­tion for the incandescent filament (нить накаливания). 6. The invention of the incandescent filament lamp belongs to Lodygin, he being the first who thought of tungsten as a material suitable for the purpose.

 

XXIV Итоговое. Проанализируйте предложения. Выпишите их но­мера в соответствующую графу таблицы. Пере­ведите некоторые из них по просьбе преподавателя

 

1. Physics is a science dealing with phenomena connected with the transformation of matter and energy.

2. The English system of weights and measures is used in Great Britain and other English speaking countries.

3. The units used for measuring time are called the second, the minute, the hour.

4. Water becomes ice when cooled.

5. The experiment described attracted great attention.

6. Such difficult exercises should be done especially careful when studying English grammar.

7. A body reversing its motion from time to time and returning at regular intervals to its original position has a motion of vibration.

8. The electrons move with varying velocities, their velocity depending on the temperature and nature of the material.

9. Electrons moving through a wire, electrical energy is generated.

10. The resistance being very high, the current in the circuit was very low.

11. The engineers applying new methods of design, good results were achieved.

12. The results of voting having been declared, people found out the names of their deputies.

13. Having informed people on the date of the conference we had to send them invitations.

14. The problems being discussed were listed.

15. Many common types of electronic computers are now being used in our scientific research laboratory.

 

функции   формы опред. обстоят. часть сказ. в составе НПО в нач. пр. В составе НПО в конце пр.
P. I active          
P. I passive          
P. II          
Perf. P. active          
Perf. P. passive          

 



THE GERUND (ГЕРУНДИЙ)

 

Информация I

 

Герундий - это неличная форма глагола, выражающая процесс дей­ствия и совмещающая в себе свойства, глагола и существительного.

Герундий совпадает по форме с причастием. В русском языке герундия нет.

 

Формы герундия

Active Passive

Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

 

Герундий в форме Indefinite (Active и Passive) выражает дей­ствие, одновременное с действием сказуемого или относящееся к будущему.

In describing the experiment he При описании опыта он дает gives every detail of the process. все подробности процесса.

I think of going to Leningrad Я думаю о поездке в Ленинград

nex year. на следующий год.

Герундий в форме Perfect (Active и Passive) выражает действие, предшествовавшее действию сказуемого.

I regret having told her about it.

Я сожалею, что рассказал ей об этом.

 

Информация II

Формальные признаки герундия

Перед герундием (в отличие от причастия) могут стоять:

1. предлог (by, in, of, without, on, instead of, in addition to, for, after, before и др.);

by measuring

 

2. притяжательное местоимение (mу, your, her, his, its, our, their);

coming, his being sent

 

3. существительное в притяжательном падеже;

this scientist's studying

 

Перевод герундия на русский язык

Герундий может переводиться:

1. существительным

2. неопределенной формой глагола

3. деепричастием

4. глаголом-сказуемым придаточного дополнительного предложения.

 





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