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Prepositions of Time



Prepositions of Time. Прийменники часу

Exercise 1. Прочитайте і запам’ятайте подані слова:

intervention– втручання

strive– прагнути, намагатися

human expertise– людський досвід

Exercise 2. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст

Automation

Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable logic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of information technology (such as computer-aided technologies, to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.

Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems can also be automated. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities.

Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern mechanical and computer systems. Tasks requiring subjective assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently require human expertise.

In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible. Specialised hardened computers, referred to as programmable logic controllers (PLCs), are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events. This leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control of almost any industrial process.

 

Exercise 3. Доповніть речення звертаючи увагу на текст:

1. Automation is the use of control systems, in concert with other applications of… .

2. Automation plays an increasingly important role in… .

3. Human-level pattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability are… .

4. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than… .

Exercise 4. Поставте 10 питань до тексту

Prepositions of Time

(Прийменники часу)

Preposition Use Examples
    in in months in July; in September
year in 1985; in 1999
seasons in summer; in the summer of 69
part of the day n the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening
duration in a minute; in two weeks
  at part of the day at night
time of day at 6 o'clock; at midnigh
celebrations at Christmas; at Easter
fixed phrases at the same time
    on days of the week on Sunday; on Friday
date on the 25th of December*
special holidays on Good Friday; on Easter Sunday; on my birthday
a special part of a day on the morning of September the 11th*
after later than smt. after school
ago how far sth. happened (in the past) 6 years ago
before earlier than sth. before Christmas
between time that separates two points between Monday and Friday
by not later than a special time by Thursday
during through the whole of a period of time during the holidays
for period of time for three weeks
from ... to from... till/until two points form a period from Monday to Wednesday from Monday till Wednesday from Monday until Wednesday
since point of time since Monday

Prepositions of Time: at, in, on



We use:

at for a PRECISE TIME

infor MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS

onfor DAYS and DATES

At in on





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