Functions, property or ingredient?
Task 6. Complete the sentences:
Задание 6. Закончите предложения:
1. The basic ingredients of mud are…
2. Two of the most important functions of mud are the…
3. Additives are used in mud to modify it…
Практическое занятие 15
rathole скважина с обсадной колонной
kelly ведущая бурильная труба
downhole нисходящая скважина
fishing services партия, производящая ловильные работы
blowout внезапный выброс, фонтанирование
jar бурить ударным буром
drillstring бурильная колонна
deviation отклонение скважины
dogleg резкое искривление ствола скважины
reamer райбер, инструмент для расширения скважины
embrittlement хрупкость, повышение хрупкости
Task 1. Read the transcript of the conversation between Alan Noughty, a journalist working for a local newspaper in Aberdeen, and Jo Mcleod, a platform manager, who is giving him a tour of the rig and showing him some of the day-to-day operations. Answer the questions:
Задание 1. Прочитайте запись диалога между Аланом Ноти, журналистом местной абердинской газеты, и Джо Маклеодом, менеджером платформы, который водит его по вышке и рассказывает о ее работе. Ответьте на вопросы:
What is the problem? How is the problem being solved?
Alan Noughty: There doesn’t seem to be a lot going on here today. The rotary table isn’t going round and there’s nothing on the Kelly.
Jo Mcleod: No, you’re right, we’ve tripped out and put the kelly into the rathole for the time being. You can see the drillpipes are stacked over there in the rack.
AN: Why? What’s the problem?
JM: There’s a fish down the hole.
AN: A fish? How did that get there?
JM: I don’t mean a real fish. It’s what we call stuff that gets lost downhole. We also call it junk.
AN: So what have you lost today?
JM: It’s not exactly lost, it’s at the bottom of the hole. It’s one of the bit cones. So we have to suspend drilling and bring in a fishing services company to retrieve it.
AN: How long will that take?
JM: Well, hopefully not too long. They’re very expensive, and every minute were not drilling is time and money wasted. Once they’ve arrived and set up, it doesn’t usually take too long to latch onto a fish. They’re due to turn up in about thirty minutes or so. All being well, we’ll be up and running again sometime tomorrow.
Task 2. Read the discussion of some other problems that can occur during drilling. Make a list of the problems. Tell how these problems are solved:
Задание 2. Прочитайте разговор о проблемах бурения. Составьте список проблем. Расскажите о том, как эти проблемы решаются:
AN: So, what other problems can occur while you are drilling?
JM: Well, fortunately, technology has improved so much in the last few years that the number of incidents is declining all the time. Nevertheless, the pressure to increase drilling speeds does mean that the chance of making mistakes has gone up. The most dangerous and potentially expensive problem is a blowout. These are extremely rare, thank goodness.
AN: What is the most common?
JM: I suppose fish are the biggest problem, but we also get stuck pipe from time to time.
AN: What happens then?
JM: You mean how does it happen? Or what do we do about it?
AN: Well, both, I guess.
JM: Well, it can happen when the drill pipe gets literally stuck to the walls of the well. We call that differential pipe sticking, and we can usually free the pipe by jarring it, using a sub in the drill string called, funnily enough, a jar. Sometimes we need to use a spotting fluid in the area where the sticking happens. Other times you get a deviation in the well - we call it a dogleg - which causes the drill pipe to stick. We can free it by reshaping the hole using a piece of kit called a reamer.
AN: I see. Anything else?
JM: Let me see. You can have different types of damage to the formation. Sometimes this means lost circulation, where the mud flows into the formation, for example. And you can also get sloughing.
AN: Sloughing? What’s that?
JM: That’s when the formation collapses.
AN: And how can you prevent these problems?
JM: Well, in most cases, the mud is the key. You can use particular types of mud; you can thin it down, thicken it, add different substances to it, and so on.
AN: So it’s pretty complicated.
JM: That’s right.
Task 3. Complete the sentences using one word from each box:
Задание 3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях словами из текста:
1. A fish is a piece of drill string, part of the bottom hole assembly or a tool that _____ the hole.
2. Stuck pipe is when suction causes the pipe to _____ the wall of the well or the hole is too narrow to allow the drill string to _____.
3. Sloughing shale is material from the formation that forms large balls which cannot be _____ by the mud.
4. Formation damage occurs when the drilling fluid is _____ the formation.
5. Lost circulation occurs when the formation is porous or highly fractured and an amount of mud _____ the well.
6. Corrosive gases, such as carbon dioxide (C02) or hydrogen sulphide (H2S), can ______ corrosion and embrittlement of a steel drill string.
7. Kicks occur when an abnormally high pressure below the surface _____ an uncontrolled flow of fluids _____ the well.
Task 4. Match the phrasal verbs with their meanings in the table below, using context of the interview to help you:
Задание 4. Сопоставьте фразовые глаголы с их значением в таблице. Используйте содержание интервью в задании 1,2.:
Task 5. Do the following sentences describe preventions or solutions to drilling problems? Place a 'P'or 'S' in each line to indicate 'prevention' or 'solution':
Задание 5. Прочитайте предложения, определите, описывают они решение или предотвращение проблем бурения. Поставьте букву 'P' (предотвращение) или 'S' (решение) после каждого предложения:
1. Chemicals, such as potassium salts, are added to the drilling mud to inhibit sloughing shale.
2. A lost circulation additive, such as fibre, flake or grain, is used when a zone of lost circulation is encountered.
3. A stuck pipe can be freed by jarring the drillstring.
4. Spiral-grooved drill collars are often used to prevent wall sticking.
5. Formation damage in a well can be treated by well stimulation, acidizing or hydraulic fracturing.
6. If you drill the formation using brine (very salty water), formation damage can be reduced.
7. To reduce the risk of corrosion, it is necessary to use more expensive and resistant steel in the drillstring.
8. To retrieve pipe from a well, either a spear or an overshoot is used, screwed into the bottom of a fishing string. (See the below pictures for other examples of fishing tools.).
9. There are various methods of killing a well when a kick is detected, and hopefully it will not turn into a full-scale blowout.