Независимый причастный оборот
В независимом причастном обороте перед причастием стоит существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в именительном падеже. Это существительное или местоимение является субъектом действия, выраженного причастием, и не совпадает с субъектом действия, выраженного личной формой глагола (то есть не совпадает с подлежащим). Независимый причастный оборот переводится обстоятельственным придаточным предложением с союзами так как, после того как, когда, если и др. или самостоятельным предложением с союзами а, и, причем. Союз ставится перед существительным (местоимением), предшествующим причастию. Причастие переводится личной формой глагола в функции сказуемого, а стоящее перед ним существительное (местоимение) – подлежащим:
1. My colleague being away, I had to take the decision myself.
Так как мой товарищ по работе отсутствовал, мне пришлось самому принять решение.
2. We continued our work, with our laboratory assistants helping us.
Мы продолжали свою работу, а наши лаборанты помогали нам.
Упражнение1. Найдите причастия в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.
1. Based on technology research by Newlands Scientific at Hull University, and marketed by a company called Olympia, the gadget is a little smaller than a computer mouse. 2. Usually, you would think of smart cards as pieces of plastic with embedded memory chips.3. Last year, a program called Alice, developed by Dr Richard Wallace, took the bronze prize. 4. Linux being created and maintained by a worldwide army of programmers belongs to no one and is open to all. 5. The avatars are computer animations designed to look and move like real people. 6. An official report released the day after the September attacks highlighted the vulnerability of America's computer networks. 7. Broadband users worried that their PC is vulnerable will soon be able to buy a "black box" that watches over their net link to stop viruses and hack attacks. 8. Because broadband net links are "always on", insecure machines linked to them are much more likely to be found and exploited by net vandals.
9. Those with a high-speed connection use the net far more than those with just a dial-up modem, and very often choose to leave their PC switched on and connected almost all the time. 10. In such attacks, PCs dotted around the web bombard a target site with bogus data packets on behalf of an attacker. 11. Some pages adopting chatbot software make their sites more interactive and friendly. 12. Fraunhofer engineers are experts in data compression, handy for making music files portable on the internet and essential for dealing with the giant volumes of data generated by film. 13. But the challenge they face extends further - to replicating the exceptional range of light captured by conventional cinema film and taking 3D sound to an entirely new level. 14. Even cameras built for high-definition television cannot match the quality of chemically processed analogue film. 15. Computer attacked by the virus crashed.
Упражнение2. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разницу перевода Participle I и Participle II.
1. Being too expansive the project couldn’t be approved. 2. Remote access devices are used to connect remote users to central or enterprise computers and data centers – for example, the travelling businessman using a notebook computer. 3. There are some good reasons to use magnetic tape, despite the disadvantages mentioned. 4. In addition to minimizing typing errors, a mouse makes operating a microcomputer easier for beginning users. 5. A magnetic disk, coupled with a disk drive that can store and retrieve data on the disk, is a random-access storage medium. 6. Removable disks consist of a single platter encased in a plastic cartridge. 7. The disks can’t be easily duplicated because the encoding process does not actually pit the disk. 8. A hard disk consists of several platters, with data encoded on both sides of each platter. 9. Many small disk notebook computers use a hard card, which is a small disk mounted on an expansion card, rather than a full disk drive and pack. 10. Most hard disks are permanently encased within the disk drive in a sealed environment free from dust and dirt. 11. Based on the same laser technology as CDs, optical disks offer a medium capable of storing extremely large amounts of data. 12. To use a CD-ROM, you must have a computer equipped with a CD-ROM drive. 13. Because CD-ROMs are read by refraction of light, a dye layer is discolored in the recording process, which causes the area either to reflect light or to disperse it. 14. We want to take the existing Jpeg2000 coding process and adapt it for cinema applications. 15. Existing 3D sound systems work well for cinemagoers sitting within a relatively small optimal zone but can suffer quality losses outside that zone.
Упражнение3. Выберите предложения, в которых причастие выполняет функцию определения, определите форму причастия и переведите на русский язык.
1.A RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) can be composed of more than one hundred 5.25-inch disks with a controller mounted in a single box. 2. CD-ROM workers much like the compact disks used in CD players. 3. If you want to create a multimedia presentation and then play it back on any available computer equipped with a CD-ROM drive, CD-R is the tool you have been looking for. 4. The blank disks are made with the spiral tracks impressed on the recording surface. 5. Magneto-optical (MO) disks are erasable and combine the magnetic principles used on tape and disk with new optical technology. 6. One of the newest MO systems – Orray produced by Pinnacle Micro – uses a storage method similar to that of RAID. 7. No matter what storage medium or computer you are working with, everything stored on it is stored in a file. 8. You should never alter or delete a configuration file, particularly one required by a computer’s operating system. 9. Graphic files contain pictures in a specific graphics format used for storing digitally encoded pictures.
10. Related fields are combined to form a record. 11. Of all the scanning devices, you are probably most familiar with bar code readers. 12. Optical scanners can scan typed documents, pictures, graphics, or even handwriting into a computer. 13. Photographs scanned into a microcomputer appear clearly on the screen. 14. Some new keyboards have 107 keys, with the three new keys designed to simplify working with Windows95. 15. Another tool used in CAD (computer-aided design) applications and other graphics applications is a digitizing tablet.
Упражнение4. Переведите следующие предложения, соблюдая порядок слов, свойственный русскому языку.
1. Early scanners could recognize only text printed in a special optical character recognition (OCR) typeface. 2. A system recently released by IBM, known as Voice Type, is capable of recognizing as many as 32,000 words and speaker independent.
3. The higher resolution with more pixels provides a clearer, more detailed image.
4. Interlaced monitors refresh every other line. 5. The second most common form of computer output is printed documents. 6. A continuous-curve plotter is used to draw maps from stored data. 7. A cookie is a small piece of data sent to your hard disk by the website. 8. A switch receives incoming transmissions arriving at a node and redirects them through the network to their proper destinations. 9. The increased capabilities of minicomputers have resulted in a decline of sales of mainframe computers. 10. IBM started producing mainframes based on arrays of microprocessor chips and designed to be servers for giant databases. 11. This is the Soundbug, a British-designed gadget aimed at young people that turns any hard, smooth surface into a loudspeaker. 12. At the heart of the Soundbug there is a small piece of a material called Terfenol-D, originally developed by the US military for sonar work. 13. The Soundbug attached to audio sources via a 3.5 millimetre jack plug, is easy to connect to a CD player or a minidisc. 14. A new video game inspired by the abstract artist Kandinsky aims to overload the senses with its psychedelic visuals and pulsating dance beats. 15. Sound generated every time you destroy one of the insect-like enemies becomes a form in the scrolling, flashing 3D computer world rushing past.
Упражнение5. Определите форму причастия и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The new faster standard called Wi-Fi5 and is awaiting final approval for use in Europe. Its imminent arrival has been promoted at the CeBIT technology fair in Hanover. 2. Business users are more likely to use the technology to connect to the internet on the move at wireless "hotspots" installed in airports, hotels and cafes.
3. Mira technology designed to give Windows users the ability to lift a flat screen display off a PC and continue using it in another room is presented at the CeBIT 2002 fair in Hanover. 4. Deutsche Telekom will base a product called T.Net around Microsoft's .Net technology, designed to provide the backroom glue for mobile business computing. 5. Only one of the blocking programs tested in the report did a good job of blocking access to the pornography stored and shared via these peer-to-peer systems. 6. Research carried out by Abbey National has revealed that when people have one bad experience online, they tend to regard all websites the same way. 7. Every minute of every day hundreds of networks connected to the internet are under attack by automatic software tools looking for and exploiting the vulnerabilities they find. 8. Two reports issued separately have shown that the net is awash with security problems and reveal the efforts anyone using the net has to take to stay safe. 9. With the FBI estimating that 1% of all attacks are succeeding, this could mean that vast numbers of the networks connected to the net have been compromised. 10. A statement issued by Counterpane along with the results said that without expert help many companies would be completely overwhelmed by the sheer number of attacks. 11. In the report Cert said that one of the most worrying trends was the increasing sophistication of the tools used by computer vandals to cause havoc on the net.
12. Wireless network fans wanting to hook up computers without the mess of cables will see new Wi-Fi5 cards, which promise a big speed boost compared with their predecessors. 13. 60,000 new domain names registered during this month are those with a ".uk" suffix. 14. There is much to learn from the games industry in terms of developing scenarios that really challenge and engage children, rather than reproducing text books on the screen. 15. A scheme in London, UK, called Consume, aims to show people how to share their net connections, software and experiences using wireless networks.
Упражнение 6. Найдите независимые причастные обороты в следующих предложениях. Переведите.
1. The main menu functions of Windows 98 being known, the main menu functions of Windows Me could be guessed. 2. The disk removed, the computer can be switched off. 3. The new browser having been studied in detail, the committee decided to introduce it at the exhibition. 4. My colleague being away, I had to take the decision myself. 5. There being many people in the conference hall, we couldn’t enter. 6. We continued our work, with our laboratory assistants helping us. 7. The new wireless network is very expensive, we hardly buy it. 8. The technology designed, we made a great progress in the field of IT. 9. The research being carried out, the virus can’t destroy our equipment. 10. Other protecting systems being cumbersome, we use the old one. 11. The new software having been installed, I felt a sort of satisfaction. 12. With the new virus being created, we need the patchs for Windows. 13. With a sound generated every time you destroy one of the enemies, the game becomes more interesting. 14. The computer crashed, I lost all my afternoon’s work. 15. The information stored, you can access it any time you need it.
Упражнение 7. Выберите правильный вариант Participle I или Participle II и переведите предложения.
1. The net was supposed to be about community, about people with common interests finding/found each other in the limitless tracts of cyberspace and connecting/connected like never before.
2. The nodes will link to the net via broadband links and share that access via antenna siting/ sited on the roofs of several buildings.
3. The company administering/ administered the .info domain could face legal challenges from those denying/ denied a chance to apply for some generic .info domains.
4. A group of researchers at Bell labs have made tiny functioning/functioned transistors a million times smaller than a grain of sand.
5. Each molecular transistor is 10 times smaller than any components creating/ created with today’s most advancing/ advanced chip making/ made techniques.
6. In the media you can often find articles telling/ told of hackers breaking/ broken into computer systems and websites stealing/ stolen and destroying/ destroied information.
7. Hacker is a computer user breaking/ broken a system’s security and stealing/ stolen valuable information.
8. Hackers will often write open-source code allowing/ allowed others to see what they have done.
9. The hacking contest was not run fairly and proved nothing about the integrity of the proposing/ proposed technologies.
10. Chemically producing/ produced components are microsopicaller, faster and more efficient then today’s silicon products made using/ used lithography.
11. Technologies such as the Internet, PCs and wireless telephony have turned the globe into an increasingly interconnecting/ interconnected network of individuals, organizations and governments communicating/ communicated and interacting/ interacted with each other with through a veriaty of channels.
12. Using/ used effectively, information and communication technologies can help to create training/ trained, educating/ educated and healthy workforce.
14. The method using/ used depends on the length to be measured.
15. An intelligent network consists of distributing/ distributed signaling network of switches, databases and dedicating/ dedicated computer servers.